Shtetl Routes. Vestiges of Jewish cultural heritage in cross-border tourism in borderland of Poland, Belarus and Ukraine

 

Shtetl Routes. Vestiges of Jewish cultural heritage in cross-border tourism in borderland of Poland, Belarus and Ukraine

 

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Busk - Cultural Heritage Card

The town of Busk is a district center located 50 km away from Lviv. The name of the city comes from the river on which it is located – Western (Zakhidny) Bug. Big amount of rivers and brooks facilitated the creation of unique hydro landscape of the towns’ territory. In XVIII–XIX century Busk was frequently called “The Halychyna Venice”.

There is another version of origin of the town name which is connected with the name of stork («buziok», «buzko»), which is depicted on the town heraldic. The legend of the city foundation is connected with this bird. It tells about the stork that seemingly helped the wife of Igor Davydovych to get out of the moors of the thick forest. On that place he ordered to build the fortified ancient settlement and called in honor of the bird – Busko. Certain researches connect the name of the city with the name of Slavonic chief Bozh. The roots of this name coincide with the tribal name of “Buzhany”.

Busk, view of the City
Busk, view of the City (Author: Zagreba, Viktor)

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"The Halychyna Venice" – this is how one of the ancient cities was called located on the boarder of Lviv region and Podillya. The city is located on the banks of four rivers. Here Poltva combines with Bug, Solotvyna and Rokytna also flow here. Besides, the city was surrounded with the ponds and watery moors. In Bavaria geographer dated the first half of ІХ century, Buzhany were included in the list of 58 Slavonic tribes and mentions the fortified settlement. The first mention of Busk (Buzhesk) is present in the chronicle “The Tale of Bygone Years” and is dated 1097. The archaeologists found three settlements of the early Middle Ages on the territory of modern city. The fortified settlement is located between the watery and moory territories, it was the territory difficult to access. In 1100 during the congress of Rus princes in Vitychi it was resolved to transfer Busk to Volyn and Dorohobuzh prince Davyd Ihorovych, grandson of the great prince of Kyiv Yaroslav the Wise, who was deprived of throne in Volodymyr.

During 1100-1112 city was the center of separate principality, and later became the ownership of Belzh princes. In ХІІІ century well-fortified city-fortress Busk played the role of outpost on the boarder of Volyn and later Kingdom of Halychyna and Volyn. In 1241 Busk was burned during the Mongol-Tatar invasion of Rus by Batu horde. In 1277 Busk became the ownership of Boleslav Mazovetsky, to whom his father-in-law, Alexander, the prince of Volodymyr and Belz gave two principalities as a dotal property for his daughter. During his reign the city was completely ruined by Tatars.

Around 1370 the first headman of Busk was Yan Tarnovsky, voivoda of Sandomyr. In 1396 Polish king Yagello granted Belz lands together with Busk to Zemovyt ІV as a dotal property for his sister Alexandra. The prince Zymovyt with his privilege issued in Sokal in 1411 grants the Magdeburg right to the city.

In 1462 after the death of the childless prince Vladyslav II (Plotsky) the principality of Belz along with Busk has become the part of Polish Kingdom of Kazimierz Jagiellonczyk. Belz principality turned into Belz voivodship, Busk has become the center of the countу. In1484the king confirmed the Magdeburg right and gave the privilege to fishery. In 1499 the king Yan Olbracht exempted local traders from duties on water, bridges, etc. In 1430 Busk was burned by the forces of prince Svydrygailo, and in 1442 — by Tatars. In turn Belz was owned by Kazymyr (died in 1447), Vladyslav І (died in 1455), and his son – Zemovyt VІ (died in1462) and Vladyslav ІІ (died in1462). After this Belz lands were returned to Polish Crown on a permanent basis. Since 1444 the eldership is renewed in Busk, the city starts a new stage of life which was based on the privileges of polish kings. In 1516 the city resisted the Tatar invasion, however, was ruined in 1654 by the force of Bohdan Khmelnytsky, and in 1672 – by Tatars.

The location of Busk was very convenient due to the trade route which passed from Bug and Visla up to Baltic coast. With the people’s arrival to the town its territories expanded: near Old Market two more markets were laid - Middle and New Market. Correspondingly, the three districts were formed: Old, New and Central part of the city. Synagogue was located in the Old city. In the central part of the city the elder’s house was built and his office, the Church of Holy Spirit, royal and Dominican mills and residential houses. There was a church of Holy Mother in the new part of the city, several houses of nobility and Jewish houses. This is where the Busk commercial center was located. The Dominican cathedral was located separately. Big amount of rivers, ditches, and channels, as well as a moory land aggravated the communication with each of these parts, at the same time creating unique character of Busk through which it received the name “Halychyna Venice”.

After confirmation of municipal rights of Busk in 1484, the people from Walachia settled here. Coming of the new settlers facilitated the city development. Since 1540 the city elders were the representatives of Polish Gurkas family. It is known that in 1573 Stanislav Gurka invited the Jews to the city. However, the Jewish settlement here was much earlier, as the oldest tomb on the Jewish cemetery is dated 1510. The first document which mentions the presence of Jews in the city comes from 1454. Gurkas were Calvinists, and Busk was one of the first centers of Calvinism in Rus. For some time the catholic parish was liquidated here, which caused numerous protests of the citizens and Lviv consistory. Gurkas also facilitated the essential economic development of the city. They founded the paper factory, which operated until 1788. They built the castle and surrounded the city with the defensive wall. In sixteenth century they initiated the subdivision into three main parts of the city – Old city, Central city where the mayor’s residence was located and the church of Holy Spirit and New City.

In 1502 the king Alexander exempts Busk Jews from taxes for three years, and Sygizmund І in 1510 extends the city privileges to the people of catholic and orthodox confessions. In 1518 the Cracow saim due to the damage inflicted by the Tatars, exempts Jews from different rents in the quota of 20 florins, and other taxes for a year. On 10 April 1550 Busk Jews were confirmed the rights and trading privileges, as well as the right of sale and purchase of houses which was reconfirmed in 1564.

In 1655 the city and castle were completely ruined by the combined forces of Bohdan Khmelnytsky and Moscow boyar Buturlin. The castle was reconstructed only in the second half of XVII century when Yablunowskys owned Busk. This family reigned in the city during four generations. During their reign the Jewish Busk became the city of Sabbatism and frankism. The Rabin Nakhman Samuel Galevi was a big proponent of the “Third Messiah" Jakub Frank. He was the one who represented frankists during the Lviv dispute, when frankists stated on behalf of Jews that Messiah has already come, about the existence of Trinity. Therefore, Galevi stated about readiness to adopt Christianity. The Rabin of Busk was among 1000 proponents of Franko who shifted to Catholicism officially during the Warsaw cathedral in 1759. He adopted the name of Petro Jakubovsky. Yakiv Frank himself rejected the Lviv dispute and did not come to it. Despite this, together with his followers he took baptism. Due to Frank’s support by Busk Jews, the king August III acknowledged Busk one of the main cities of frankists in the state.

In XVI four water mills worked in the city. In 1539 or 1541 the paper plant was created. In 1581 on the paper produced by the plant the Ostrog Bible was printed. The paper plant operated until 1788. Busk has become the centre of county. Since 1540 three generations of Gurkas occupied the positions of governors. The first of them Yedriy Gurka tried to limit the rights of the citizens. In 1543 the city residents initiated the lawsuit against him which they won. In 1582 the king Stefan Bathory acknowledged Busk free royal city. Since 1670 the Busk elders were four princes Yablonskys in sequence. They also tried to limit the rights of the citizens using the fact that the city privileges were burned during the invasion of Bohdan Khmelnytsky’s forces. Instead, in 1742 the king August III confirmed the privileges of Busk. Since 1763 Yosyp Miyer has become the elder. He contributed much to the rapid city development, creating the industrial objects. He built the sawmills in the city, he burned the coal, initiated production of coal tar and resin, slaked lime and potassium. He also melted the iron and glass.

In 1772 Busk fell under the power of Gabsburg Monarchy. Yablonovskys sold Busk property of Joseph Miyer who came from the Scottish family. It took place in 1763 and in 1772 when, as a result of the first division of lands Busk was under the power of Austria, it was acknowledged the property of Miyer. Since that time the rapid development of the city as an industrial center took place. Miyer built the sawmills here, and the glass foundries. Czech and German craftsmen were invited to work here. His son, duke Woitzech Miyer built the palace in 1810 which survived till this day. Busk remained under Miyers’ power up till 1879. In 1849 the city was burned, having lost its economic power. After Miyers Busk was inherited by the family of Badenis. The duke Kazymyr Badeni, one of the representatives of this family, in 1888 was appointed the governor of Halychyna, and in 1895-1897 he occupied the position of the prime-minister of Austro-Hungarian Empire. Then he settled in Busk, where he stayed till his death. After that the owner of the estate was his son Ludwig Joseph Badeni. The Badeni family held a very favorable policy with regard to the Jews. There are legends that Kazymyr Badeni talked with the local Jews in Yiddish, supported poor Jews exempting them from taxes.

In XIX century Busk was provincial town bypassed by industrialization. The railway junction was arranged in the neighboring town Krasne. In 1884 Busk encountered 5, 297 residents. Among them 2,001 Catholics with Latin ordinance (37,8%), 1640 Greek-Catholics (31,0%), 1566 Jews (29,6%), 69 Evangelical Augsburg Protestants (1.3%), 17 Evangelical Reformation Protestants (0,3%).

At the beginning of ХХ century the heavy emigration wave to United States took place. Many Jewish craftsmen, small traders and other unemployed people left Busk emigrating to America. Among them there were sir Max Kremnits and his wife Regina. In August 1914 most of Busk Jews run away from the threat of Russian invasion. Some of the refugees run to Vienna, other settled in Bohemia, Hungary or other places distant from the battle line. The refugees quickly adapted to the new environment. They became workers, organized the business. Most of them have not returned to Busk.

During the World War I Busk was invaded by the Russian forces from August 1914 to July 1915. In November 1918 it has become the part of West Ukrainian People’s Republic which created the basis of its small aviation army here. In May 1919 Busk was invaded by the Polish army. During the war with the Bolshevik Russia in August 1920 the city was temporarily invaded by the cavalry under the command of Semen Budionny.

In 1921 1, 460 Jews resided in Busk. During the interwar period Busk was the provincial city. Although it is located close to Lviv, the city at that time was the part of Ternopil Voivodership. In 1939 its population encountered 8, 000 people, out of them 4, 000 of Poles 2, 500 Jews and 1, 500 Ukrainians.

After Busk invasion by the Red Army in September 1939 the Soviet army arranged the camp of the prisoners of war here. The camp was arranged in the stables of the estate of Badeni family. Here over 1,000 Polish prisoners of war stayed. They were forced to build the highway Lviv-Kyiv. As of the moment of German invasion of the Soviet Union, NKVD killed 35 people in prison. The Germans invaded the city at the end of June 1941. Ukrainians started massacre in the city, but were stopped by the priest of the Grew-Catholic Church Kalynovych. Only 30 people could not be saved, they were blamed for the cooperation with the Russian forces, they were shot by Germans. About 1, 900 Jews resided in Busk at that time. The Judenrat was appointed which tried to help the Jewish community. On 21 August, 1942 the Campaign took place during which the local Jews were deported together with the Jews from Kamyanka-Strumylova to the death camp in Belzhka. The other, bigger campaign took place on 21 September 1942. The Germans organized the mass shooting of Jews from Busk and Kamyanka. About 2, 500 people died. Big group of Jews and members of Judernat stayed in Busk till 21 May 1943. At the end of 1942 the ghetto was created where the Jews from the surrounding territories were placed. In Spring 1943 about 2, 500-3, 000 persons stayed here including the refugees from the liquidated ghetto. The other Jews were killed in Busk on 21 May 1943. The group of chosen men was sent by the Germans to Yanivsky concentration camp in Lviv.

In May 1944 most of Poles left the city, first of all due to the UPA confrontation. After the war the city residents started reconstructing the ruined city. Busk has become the administrative center. In 1963 Busk region was liquidated at the end of 1966.

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More detailed information about the age of Busk is provided by the archeological findings. On the territory of modern Busk three settlements of Rus period were found on the territory – «Velyke», «Male» (on the territory of the city park on the confluence of rivers Zakhidny Bug and Poltva), and «Volianske» (on the territory of Voliany suburbs). During the archeological researches of the city territory in 2000–2013 the objects were found which belong to the culture of different epochs, in particular, the cultures of line and ribbon ceramics, local variant of trypillia culture, artefacts and facilities of malytska, cherniakhivska, vysotska cultures. Throughout the whole city territory the remains of the houses, working equipment and other everyday items dated by VIII–XIII centuries were found. The earliest recorded material are the remains of the deepened object excavated in the central part of the city in 2004, ceramics and compositional complex dated VIII century. After the collapse of Dulib Union of Tribes which has not transferred into the first Slavonic Proto-national formation, Busk has become the tribal center of Buzhany.

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In ХІХ century there was a big stone synagogue in the city, st. Stanislav Cathedral, wooden churches of St. Onuphrius and St. Paraskeva. All these architectural monuments exist till this day, although their conditions are different.

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Schools

There were two state primary schools in Busk (from the age of 7) for boys and girls, but there was no high school. Rich parents sent their children to the high school in neighboring Kamyanka-Strumylova, Bordy, Zolochiv or Lviv. Those who could not afford studying at school were studying at home. Many of them successfully passed the graduation exams and then were looking for the university they could enter to continue their studying. There was no yeshivah in Busk, however, every student who wanted to continue his/her religious studies after “heder” could study in Clause". There local Rabins helped them with the studying of Talmud and other Jewish books. There were a lot of outstanding scholars in the city trained well in Jewish Science and general disciplines who studied privately at most. Jewish national rebirth was present in Busk from the beginning.

The students of clause and other students studied Hebrew. In 1908 the evening school for the Hebrew studies was created. The first teacher of school was Israel Barukh (Hahn), who lived in Haifa, Israel afterwards. He wrote the memoirs about the first Jewish school in Busk. Other Jewish schools were founded in 1921. They facilitated the spread of colloquial Hebrew as a modern living language, and understanding of Bible. Studying of Hebrew caused the appearance of "Chalutzim" (pioneers) for Eretz Israel. Many young people continued studying Hebrew at the courses for teachers and at the High School of Hebrew and other institutions in Lviv.

Organizations

The Jews of Busk actively participated in different events of Zionist organizations. Different Zionist youth organizations operated in the city, among them "Hа-Shomer Khatsair", "Gordonia". "Akhvakh", "Betar” , etc. Besides, all Zionist political parties operated in the city "Zionists", "Khidakhdut" "Revisionists” “Poaley-Zion of the left", "Yad Kharutsim".

There was football team operating in Busk together with the sports club called "Bar-Kokhba". Several "khalutsims" from Busk joined the third league in Israel. At that time they faced many difficulties in Israel. One of them was Mayer Dror (Shor), founder of "Hashomer Hatzair" in Busk. Dror built his house at Kfar Yezkhekel and created a successful business of the fruits export. Busk was very important element in the history of Jews Diaspora.

Urban planningDirect link for this paragraphGo back to indexGo back to index

At the beginning of XV century the town became an important trading and handicraft center. Being located near the “Black Route” which the Tatars used to invade Ukraine, Busk started growing as a defense center already from the 1st half of XV century.

Active restoration of the city center and fortifications started only in XIV–XV centuries and in 1411 Busk as a property of Masovian prince Zemovyt IV received the Magdeburg right. At the time of Economic and Cultural renovation of the city the Busk center was founded and structured into three parts which emerged in proportion to the expansion of the urban territories: Old Town with the parish church of St. Stanislav, St Nicolas Church and synagogue of XIV–XV century; on the verge of XIX–XX the old name wiped out and was changed into Rynok - the middle city with the elder’s houses, office, royal and Dominican mill and Holy Spirit Church (XV–XVI centuries).

In XV century the craftsmen unions – workshops were founded in Busk. The city administration received the privilege to gather 4 groszes of the field and rent from the garden to the city needs. The residents were given two fields for pastries, the permit to fish in Bug and Poltva with the nets and Busk people along with the Rusins were given the right to brew beer and liquors in the city and on the outskirts at the distance of one mile. The merchants from the other cities were prohibited to sale their goods in the city and in the outskirts without the magistrate permission. And the city residents were relieved of the works for princes, in the castle and in the yard.

Since 31 November 1448 Vladislav І – the prince of Masovia and Rus for more rapid city renovation upon the request of Busk people confirmed the Busk privilege of Zemovyt ІV, issued in Sokal in 1411. The said decree was also confirmed on 30 April 1499 at Cracow saim by Yan Olbracht who due to the fire and poverty of the city residents additionally exempted the Busk residents from all duties when transporting the goods (peage, rowing duty) throughout the kingdom. On 16 September 1507 in Cracow the Busk city receives the reconfirmation of its privileges for the second time.

The Jews settled in Stary Rynok and in the new parts of the city. For the tax they were allowed to found the distilleries in the city and suburbs. In 1502 the king Alexander exempted them from all taxes for three years. In 1578 there were 189 Jews in Busk. The king Sygizmund І with the first privilege dated 1510 grants the right of choosing the city counselors exclusively to the Roman Catholics.

In 1524 Sygizmund І confirms the privilege issued in Belz of 27 November 1476 by the king Kazimierz Jagiellonczyk on the request of residents, which allowed keeping 12 butcheries and kill the cattle for meet, except for the Tuesday and Saturday. In the suburbs Lipyboky over Bug in 1578 the paper plant was built, which after 135 years of operation was ruined by the flooding. In the same year the census mentions 4 mills and cloth factories. There were 5 sewers in the city, 10 tailors, 6 brewers, 3 coopers, 3 smiths, 1 silk maker, 1 leather craftsman, 1 swordsman, 3 hatters, 2 maltmen, 3 fishers, 1wool fuller, 1 jeweler, 1 potter, 6 salt sellers, 40 bakers, 30 bee-keepers, 2 orthodox priests and 5 Jewish craftsmen and 5 Jewish craftsmen. At that time the city paid the double duty for the roads maintenance in the amount of 110 florins. In the forests around Busk the people of Valachian origin settled for feeding the cattle, sheep, cloth production for the simple clothes, production of lags, burning the wood coal, ash and floatage of woods through Bug to Gdansk. On 18 January 1497 the king Yan Olbracht transfers the roads arranged for Tuesdays, to Wednesdays and Saturdays, and the king Alexander on 07 January 1502 returns them to the Tuesdays again. In 13 April 1508 in Cracow upon the request of the city residents the privilege of 1497 was confirmed and the Mondays roads are transferred to Tuesdays and Saturdays. In 1537 the road from Lutsk, Ostrog, Kremenets passes Busk through this road the salt was brought from Dolyna. In 1567 the warehouse of “Rus” salt was established in the city, as well as the warehouse of the crushed salt, packed into the sacks. In 1522 Busk citizens receive the privilege of exemption from Lviv entrance duty for three years, and in 1527 Lviv merchants receive the right of free purchase of salt, fishing in Busk.

In 1539 the residents of all confessions (including Jews) receive the right of the liquors and wines production. In conclusion of the process of Busk residents against the elder Anjei Gurka the king Sygizmund I with his decree issued on 29 April 1543 reserved all the acquired rights and freedoms for the city. The residents were exempted from obligations in favor of elderly, the right of fishing in Bug and Poltva was confirmed to them, for which they had to work certain days when repairing the rows and bridges. In 1550 Sygizmund August in the whole region exempts the Bug People from the duty on horses, oxen, and other cattle, brought for sale; the people on the suburbs were exempted from different local elderly duties; city residents were made independent from the jurisdiction and prisons of elderly and provided with the free cutting of trees of eldership and confirmed the right to use the hay-meadows and pastries.

In 1582 the king Stefan Bathory pronounced Busk the free royal city which also received the privilege of "de non tolerandis Judaeis". It is not known what exactly this privilege provided, but Jews always lived within the city.

In 1735 the heavy rain pouring for several days damaged and destroyed the castle. After that the elder had to fortify the city once again. With the efforts of the city residents new rows and walls were constructed. Also the municipal archive was arranged. The books were set in the morocco covers with the gilded edges and gilded arms of Yablonovskyis. The city was the center of Busk county Belz voivodership. The elder was the head of county and represented the king.

In the late XVIII — early ХІХ century on the central plateau of the Middle City the shoe factory of Ivan-Frederik Preshl operated which provided the Austrian army with shoes. For some time (before the court building 1810) this territory was called Fabryka. On the cadastral map of 1845 this name is not mentioned any more, and the territory was related to Stare Misto (Old City). New City (Nove Misto) with the parish church of Virgin Mary with the Dominican monastery (XVI century). In the early XVIII century with the efforts of the Busk elderly Joseph-Alexander Yablonvskyi along with the lands of monastery of New City the new, separately entrenched city was built and called Yabloniv (in XIX century this part of the City Center was called differently Mury). The structure of Busk City Center with certain changes existed till mid ХІХ century.

During XIX-ХХ centuries the city was the part of Brody-Zolochiv circle and Kamyanka-Strumyliv county of Austro-Hungarian monarchy and interwar Polish Republic. Busk district was created in 1939 and survived the administrative reform of 1959. In 1963 it was liquidated, having restored the pre-war Kamyanka-Strumyliv county, however, in 1967 was renewed. Moreover, Olesko district which in 1963-1966 was annexed to Brody district was affiliated to it. 

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Jewish monuments

Synagogue (ХVІІІ century), located near Rynok Square.

There were two wooden synagogues in the city – the big was built in 1802 and the small one in 1796. The big brick synagogue was built only in 1842-1843 in the interfluves area of Poltva and Bug. The Synagogue was reconstructed and survived till this day. Jakob Glanzer from Lviv participated in the construction foundation. During the Second World War the interior of the main hall of synagogue was used as a construction material. Many valuable architectural elements were destroyed. Synagogue was completely reconstructed after the war, as it received the new purpose.

During the Soviet times there was a gym in synagogue, as well as the warehouse and later the front part of synagogue was transferred into the residential premises, and remaining parts – into the waste deposit. The synagogue was rapidly destroying. For the purpose of preserving the valuable monument it was resolved to transfer the unpopulated part with evangelists who partially restored the building. In its basis the synagogue has the right-angular design with the square hall for praying. The walls were built of the broadstones, plastered from inside and outside. Northern and southern facades have the traditional appearance for the synagogue. The walls of the praying hall were decorated with the cornice. The building is lighted with two semicircular and one circular window. The western side is divided into two floors. The front façade is divided into three parts, each pilaster is divided by the window apertures with the brick portals, consoles and acanthus leaves made of plaster. The northern façade part looks the same as the western one. There was a niche for Torah in the eastern wall decorated with the two-storey neoclassical portal, crowned with the archivolt. On both sides there were two rows of columns with the Corinthian capitals.

Kirkut

Old Jewish cemetery is the oldest cemetery on the territory of Ukraine, one of the oldest in the Central and Eastern Europe. Kirkut is dated 1520. On the oldest tomb there is a following epitaph “Received the jewel instead of powder. Here a polite person is buried, Mr. Yeguda, the son of Mr. Jacob, called Judah. Died on Tuesday the 5-th of kislev, the year of 5281 anno mundi (23 November 1520). May in the node of life his soul be joined with the souls of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and all God-loving people.”

The images of lions; bear with the blooming branches in his paws or the bears carrying two bunches of grapes on the pole; There are also the images with squirrels cracking the nuts near the symbolic Tree of Life; the two-headed eagle as a personification of the dualistic essence of the God who is the Judge, Mercy, Severity and Love in one.

Kirkut is quite big, spreads on several hills, some of them approach the residential houses.

Other monuments

Wooden church of St. Onuphrius

Church with the belfry was built in 1758. There is one interesting building near the church and belfry: chapel (1864) caved in the thick trunk of the millenary oak. The church of Onuphrius is located in the part of the city remote from the city center.

Wooden St. Paraskeva Church (1708), 56a Shashkevych str. is in the bad condition, regular ceremonies are not conducted.

The earl Badeni Palace (ХІХ cent.), 12 Ye. Petrushevycha str., (closed for excursions).

The earl Badeni Palace was built in 1810. Kazymyr Badeni was the governor of Halychyna, bought the palace in 1876. In one of the palace rooms the old parquet decorated in seven colors is preserved. In the other sculptured arms of the palatine family.

Up to 1939 the palace was the summer residence of Badeni family. After nationalization, from 1953 to 2005 different military formations were located here. The palace architecture is performed in the neoclassical style, rich architectural decorations of the elevation facing yard. The one-storey, square galleries are curved. The interiors of entrance gall, front staircase and parlor of the palace are fit out in neo-renaissance style, are decorated with the reach plasterwork. The author of interior decoration is Petro Harasymovych. The value of the monument determines the authentic stylistic features of neo-classicism and neo-renaissance in the exterior and interior of the palace. Since 25 May 1961 the military unit of strategic communications was dislocating in the palace, and since 25 May 2004 it was disembodied. The state guard number is 775-М. the premises of the palace are used by the Ministry of Defense of Ukraine. The object has not actually been used since 2005.

St. Stanislav Church. From the records of Sumaryush Verzhbovsky it was found that in 1517 Krystyn Tsheska was the Busk priest – later the Lviv canonic, who on 10 June 1531 bough the Busk area for the church plebany. The Busk elder Lukash Gurka, Calvinist wanted to demolish the Latin parish but the city residents saved the temple. The King Sygizmund in 1564 restored the church foundation in honor of St. Stanislav, confirmed the granted rights and incomes. In 1779 new church of St. Stanislav was built and again the issue of lands and income of church was settled. The lands for building were given by the privilege of the king Stanislav August Poniatovsky. It was built according to the design of the outstanding architect Bernard Meretin. In Middle City in XVI century the Holy Spirit cathedral was located, but it was completely destroyed during the Cossack and Tatars invasions in 1648-1655. The Prince Yuri Vyshnevetsky, the castellan of Kyiv, in 1608 built the church with the monastery of the fathers-Dominicans.

Busk paper factory is of great historical value and is dated 1546. In the archive materials the date 1735 is mentioned when there was a big flood on the river Bug, which broke the banks and washed the paper factory, or, to be more exact, its remains. According to the Polish researcher Mechyslav Hemberowicz in 1634-1643 the papermill workers Jacob Cherpash and Petro Soboshkovych worked in Busk. The water mark was a boat – arms of the Lodz city. He proved that at that time Busk was the property of the Lodz sir and that was 1551 at maximum. It was also found that Ivan Fedorov for the first printed book on the territory of Ukraine – the “Apostle”, used the paper from Busk and Lutsk.

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Busk park (Ivan Franko park) — the monument of the garden and park arts of national significance in Ukraine. Its area is 8 ha. The nature-protection status was granted in 1960 (modern status – according to the order of the Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources of 29.11.2011, No. 495). is under the supervision of Busk Common Utility Combine.

The status of this monument of garden and park arts was granted for the purpose of preserving the ancient park, established in XVII where a lot of secular trees grow. The river Zakhidny Bug into which the river Poltva falls near the Western part, passes through the park. Near the Eastern part the Badeni Palace is located. 

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The relative of prof. Benjamin Freeman, well-known American economist from New York was the native of Busk.

In Busk at the beginning of XX century the doctor Leo Sheps resided. Doctor Sheps was born in Busk and graduated from medical faculty in Lviv. He practiced in Vienna, and later returned to Busk in order to open the clinic. Besides, the doctor did a lot to improve the population’s health condition. His son, Morris Sheps was born in Busk in 1833 and studied in the secondary school and university of Lviv. In 1854 he started studying medicine in Vienna, but later started getting acquainted with the journalism, having become quite a popular publicist.

In his articles in the newspaper "Neues Wiener Tagblatt" he defended liberal democratic power. He also supported the Austro-French Union which confronted Prussia. Among Morris’s friends there were a lot of French writers and government leaders. One of his closest friends was George Clemanso, outstanding French politician and government leader. Once he went to visit his father’s grave with Morris Sheps to the Jewish cemetery in Busk. When he returned, he wrote an article about his visit to Busk. In his article he wrote: “In addition to the storks, geese and ducks, Busk is populated by the Orthodox Jews. These Jews are very poor. They own some small shops or work as the craftsmen or traders. They wear the rags and live in such poverty that attracts sympathy to their crummy life. It’s hard to say whether they realize their malignant conditions, as their faces always bear some modest smile". Morris Sheps has become a well-known writer, known for his progressive ideas and thoughts about nationhood. He never denied his Jewish origin and was not ashamed of his place of birth. Till his death in 1902 Morris Sheps frequently visited Busk to honor his father’s grave.

The surname “Sheps” most probably comes from “Shabatai”. There are a quite a lot of historical sources which state about large number of the followers of fake messiah Shabatai Tsvi in Busk. There are grounds to think that the Sheps family during some time actively participated in the movement of Sabatai Tsvi, therefore they adopted the name “Shabatai". Later they returned to the original Jewish community having changed the surname from Shabatai to Sheps.  

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Local history museums of Busk were opened in Busk gymnasium. Since the time of its foundation in 1997 the gymnasium museum enriched its exposition. In museum the archeological evidence found during the excavations, labor equipment, everyday life from the late Paleolithic to the mid ХVІІ century. The monuments come from the territory of the c. Busk and Busk region. In the excavations, reconstruction works, and creation of expositions of museums the scholars and city residents participated.

The places of memoryDirect link for this paragraphGo back to indexGo back to index

It is known about the existence of the forced labor camp for Jews from May to November 1943. The place where according to the evidence of the local residents the shootings were conducted, are located on the small terrace approximately 70х80m big near the old Jewish cemetery (among the territory of cemetery and Solotvyna river terrace). This is the first terrace of the left bank of the river Solotvyna on the territory of the city, which as a result of the artificial rock dumping (to prevent the cemetery flooding) is raised over the river terrace approximately by 1,5m. 15 holes of different sizes were found in this place, which indicated the possible places of repository of the victims of shootings. The territory of the terrace as well as the whole area of cemetery is used by the local residents as a pastry for the cattle.

In 2004 the representatives of Sokhnut organization built a holocaust memorial on the cemetery.

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Hotels

Hotel “Oksana”. 2 Maidan Nezalezhnosti Phone: +38(032) 64-212-37, +38(098) 540-44-55.

Hostel Anton, 1 Nadsiannia str.  +38 ( 050 ) 370-66-67, ( 097) 907-47-59. 

List of referencesDirect link for this paragraphGo back to indexGo back to index

  1. Возняк Т. Штетли Галичини
  2. http://www.jewishgen.org/yizkor/busk/busk.html
  3. http://www.sztetl.org.pl/pl/city/busk/
  4. http://uk.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%91%D1%83%D1%81%D1%8C%D0%BA
  5. http://decerkva.org.ua/busk_onufriy.html
  6. http://www.memoria.com.ua/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=36&Itemid=34
  7. http://www.buzhany-busk.com.ua/povit_kamyanka.php
  8. http://busk.io.ua/s80333/misto_busk_-_veneciya_polska_
  9. http://prostir.museum/ua/post/29646
  10. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0004_0_03775.html
  11. http://texty.org.ua/pg/article/jesfor/read/44076/Tajemnyci_jevrejskyh_kladovyshh
  12. http://edwebproject.org/busk.html

Author: Bozhena Zakaliuzna

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