Shtetl Routes. Vestiges of Jewish cultural heritage in cross-border tourism in borderland of Poland, Belarus and Ukraine


Shtetl Routes. Vestiges of Jewish cultural heritage in cross-border tourism in borderland of Poland, Belarus and Ukraine


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Khust - Cultural Heritage Card

Khust is a district center of Zakarpattia Region, located in Marmarosh Hollow on the confluence of the rivers Tysa and Rika near Chervona Skelia.

Khust, general view over the city
Khust, general view over the city (Author: Zagreba, Viktor)

HistoryDirect link for this paragraphGo back to indexGo back to index

In Х-ХІ century before Zakarpattia invasion by the Hungarian tribes, the territory of modern city and its outskirts was the part of Kyiv Rus. In X century there was a fortified settlement here. The exact date of the city emergence is not known, however, its history is closely connected with the castle foundation. The construction of fortress to protect the salt route from Solotvyno mines started on this place approximately in 1090. In ХІ-ХІІ century the settlement was formed around the fortress. Due to the numerous invasion of Cumans the Khust population of ХІІ century was composed mostly of the Saxon settlers invited by the king of Hungary Geiza ІІ. In 1242 the fortress and the city were ruined by Tatars. In 1318 the castle was renewed. From 1281 to 1321 the city was a part of Halychyna-Volyn Principality, and then again became the part of Hungarian Kingdom.

From 1329 Khust had the status of a free crowned city. In 1511 Laslo ІІ gave Khust castle with all its properties for renting for 20 thousand gold pieces to the district chief Habor Perenia.

After the collapse of Hungarian army in the battle near Mogach in 1526 central part of Hungary became the part of Ottoman Empire, Transdanubia and Northern districts were transferred to Austrian Gabsburg Empire, and а southeast districts, including Khust, became the part of Transilvania Principality. In 1546 the Khust castle was owned by Austrians. In 1557 the city was governed by Transilvania. Since 1577 the city was fortified, additional fortifications were constructed. In Summer 1594 the 80-thousand Tatar horde approached the city but could not invade it. The similar attacks were quite frequent in the mid ХVII century. In 1599 the castle was invaded by the Austrian forces of the General Diord Bashta, who became its owner. Starting from the 30-s of XVI century and till the end of XVIІ century the city together with the castle was owned by Transilvania princes, emperor Ferdinand I, finally, they became the part of Gabsburg Monarchy. In the mid XVIІ century Marmarosh Region suffered from the attacks of Crimean Tatars, campaign of the Polish prince Lyubomyrskyi in 1657, and from the Turkish invasion 1661-1662. However, the castle could not be conquered by anyone.

During the war 1703-1711 Khust was an important base station of the rebels – Kurutsi composed of both Hungarian and Slavonic people. This is where the heads of the rebels in 1709 convened the Seven Cities Saim and proclaimed the Transilvania independence. In 1711 after Gabsburgs’ victory, the Austrian Station was based in Khust castle. In 1717 the city survived the invasion of Crimean Tatars, but they only robbed the city and did not assault the castle. The local defenders caught the Tatars in Carpathians, killed about 6,000 invaders and liberated 7, 000 slaves. That was the last Tatars invasion of Zakarpattia.

Jewish community was created in Khust in the mid XVIII century and till 1792 encountered 14 families. At the beginning of XVIII century Khust was a small settlement. Strong inflow of Jews from Halychyna especially after the first division of Rzecz Pospolita (1772) troubled the Hungarian power. This is testified by the king’s decrees about the limitations and prohibitions of entrance of Hungary by Jewish people (1806 and1819). However, in practice, these decrees were not very efficient. Big amount of Jewish emigrants settled in the northeast boarder territories of Hungarian Kingdom, i.e. in Carpathian Region. In Hungary, the part of which historical Zakarpattia was, for the period from 1785 to 1870 the number of Jews was eight times as big. For instance, in the late XVIII century, Jewish community of Uzhgorod was so strong that in 1792 Jewish school was opened here.

In Hungarian part of Austrian Empire Jews had favorable conditions for life and work. Such status caused active participation of Jews in the civil and political life. The first Rabin of Khust in 1812 was Jacob from Zhydachiv. During the revolution in 1848-1849 in Mukachevo over 600 residents – Hungarians, Rusins were enrolled in the troops of National Guards. At the same time over 130 Jews created their own troops to fight for the rights equal with the other national groups.

The flow of Jews to the Carpathian region and during XIX century did not stop. In 1839 there were 3, 109 residents in the city. Out of them 1,953 – Greek-Catholics, 640-Roman Catholics, 370-Reformers, 132 – Jews, 8 Lutherans. In the Eastern part of the region, Marmarosh – in the last quarter of the XIX century the amount of Jews was 50 thousand. (20% of the population), i.e. more than in 10 comitats of the neighboring Transilvania taken together. Somewhat less – 35 ths. in the westernmost comitat of Zemplyn, 30 thousand – in the comitat Bereg. According to the census of 1869 Jews in the region amounted to 11.3% of the population, in 1890 – 14,2%, in 1910 – 14,7%. In the mid ХІХ century the Khust community became one of the most numerous and most important in the Southern Hungary, in particular, due to the reputation of Moshe Shyk who was the Khust Rabin from 1861 to1879.

In 1920 -1938 when Khust was under the power of Czechoslovakia the life of the Jewish community was raging in the city. In 1923five members of the city administration were Jews. In 1921 the Jewish population amounted to 3.391persons and in 1930 increased to 4.821 persons.

It is quite tough to establish the exact ethnical structure of the population of those times, as in the Hungarian censes (1900, 1910) vernacular language was the determining criteria of the nationality, and from Jews almost 60% used German, 29.2% – Hungarian, 8.4% – «Rusin», i.e. Ukrainian, 1.6% – Romanian, 0.8% – Slovak languages, the rest was “scattered” among the other language groups. However, the statistics testifies to the fact that in 1900 the population increased to 8.616 persons.

During the First World War the camp of the prisoners of war of the Russian army was based in Khust. They, together with the Khust residents in 1915 arranged a small monument-pyramid near Zamkova Mountain in memory of the war victims. In 1919 the Soviet Power was established in the city and Hungarian Soviet Republic was proclaimed, but already on 18 April 1919 Khust together with the whole Pidkarpattia Rus was invaded by the Roman army, and according to Trianon Peace Treaty was transferred to Czechoslovakia. In 1920-1930-s the city was developing, as it has become the administrative center of Czechoslovakia part of Marmarosh comitat. In Khust in 1938-39 the diary “Nova Svoboda” was issued and “Nova Scena” theatre was operating. In 1938, according to the decision of Vienna Arbitrage, the part of Zakarpattia with the biggest cities of Uzhgorod and Mukachevo was transferred to Hungary. On 10 November 1938 Khust became the capital of the autonomous part of Carpathian Ukraine where the government of Augustin Voloshyn was evacuated.

Zakarpattia lands in the end of 1938 belonged to Hungary where Khorti fascist regime operated. With the beginning of the Second World War in 1939 Khorti Hungary has actually become the ally of Hitler’s Germany and started conducting the anti-Semite policy with regard to Hungarian Jews and Jewish community of Zakarpattia, which was the component of Jewish communities of Hungary. On 15 March 1939 the independence of Carpathian Ukraine was proclaimed, and next day Hungary annexed the whole Zakarpattia Region. There was an armed struggle between the forces of Carpaty Sich and Czech and Hungarian forces. Augustin Voloshyn’s declaration was the second in the history of Ukraine of ХХ century attempt to proclaim the independence of Ukrainian state. For the period of Hungarian-German occupation of Khust over (over 14 thousand according to the other information) 8 thousand of people were taken to the forced labor camps, first of all of the Jewish origin. On October 1944 Khust was invaded by Red Army. After the Second World War Zakarpattia was appended to the Soviet Union as a part of Ukrainian SSR.

Until 1941 the Jewish population increased to 6.023 (from the general amount of population 21. 118). During 1939–1944 Zakarpattia Jews, as all Hungarian Jews were subject to persecution by the Hungarian power which was frankly anti-Semite. Anti-Semitism in Hungary in 1938–1944 was official state policy as in the Nazi Germany.

In 1940 all physically able male Jews had to perform forced labor. After Hungary entered the war, forced workers were transferred to the military construction works, often being in horrible conditions. Destined for the extreme cold, without shelter, food or medical aid, many workers were dying. Great amount of Jewish population was transferred by the Hungarian power to the German Nazis. Jews were transported in the freight wagons to Kereshmezo (v. Yasinia) not far from the pre-war Polish boarder, from where they were transported through the boarder and given to Nazis.

At that time the Jewish families without Hungarian citizenship were forced to Ukraine, occupied by the Nazi forces. Many of them were killed in Kamyanets Podilsky.

In Khust and Khust Region three ghettos were created – in Khust, villages Iza and Sokyrnytsia. 5.351 Jews lived here and were placed to ghettos together with over 5. 000 Jews from the neighboring villages and cities. It is known that several dozens of Jews ran from Khust and voluntarily joined Czechoslovakia army created by the Soviet Union to fight against Nazis on the Eastern front.

In Spring 1944 about 10.000 people from Khust and region were forced to the death camps. Jews were sent to the camp complex «Oswiecim» («Auschwitz») – «Birchenough». Soviet forces occupied this place in the end of January 1945. The part of prisoners was forced to walk to the West, to the concentration camps of «Buchenwald» and «Ravensbrück» (Germany), «Mauthausen» (Austria). Starting from 14 May 1944 the trains to Oswiecim departed directly from eight railway stations – Mukachevo, Berehovo, Uzhgorod, Bologove (Mizhgirya), Solotvyno, Sevliush (Vynogradovo), Khust, Tiachev. They passed Koshytse (Slovakia). In each echelon they brought from 2 to 4 thousand Jews.

Until 1944 Khust was declared “free” from Jews.

At the beginning of February 1945 the first Jews who survived returned to the city, among them there was Vertgeimer, Josi Rosenberg and Tsvi Menshel. Until summer 1946 the number of Jews in Khust increased to 400. However, most of Jewish families who returned in the nearest future settled in the other place. In 2001 in Khust there was about 31.864 residents. Several Jewish families still live there today (information as of 2013).

ArcheologyDirect link for this paragraphGo back to indexGo back to index

Archeological excavations on the territory of the city and district found the settlements of Paleolithic and Mesolithic settlements, metal epoch monuments.

Excavations conducted near Khust during the post-war decades, on the territory of the city found the remains of the so-called culture of Carpathian kurgans. This is the culture of one Common Slavonic group which lived in Carpathian and Zakarpattia region in the first half of I millennia A.D. 

Civil institutionsDirect link for this paragraphGo back to indexGo back to index


In 1861 the Rabi Moshe Schick, known as Magaram Shik founded the greatest yeshivah of those times in Khust, where Torah was studied. Over 800 students studied at school.


At the beginning of XX century the active Jewish political parties operated, such as «Agudat Israel», Zionist organizations, Orthodox youth groups and Jewish national party which represented the community in the city council.

Different organizations and institutions operated in the city, for instance, the kheders, «Talmud Torah», sofers (bookmen), melameds (teachers) resided here. Jewish cult subjects were sold in the city – tallithes, tefillins, candlesticks, prayer books. There was the house for the ritual birds slaughter, baker shops, fish and meat shops.

Cultural life of Jews in the cities was concentrated around the religious and secular (Zionist) organizations. Conversations were mostly in Hebrew and Hungarian, sometimes in Rusin. It was normal to speak the language of neighbors. Jews – natives of the East-Slavonic regions (Czech Republic, Poland, Halychyna) were mostly the followers of Orthodox Judaism, which demanded the strict adherence to Torah and Talmud.

Urban developmentDirect link for this paragraphGo back to indexGo back to index

Most probably the city was founded in ХІ century when the protective fortress was erected to defend the solar route from Solotvyno mines. The history and development of the city are closely connected with the fortress. The castle had a long story from ХІ to XVIII century.

At the beginning of the XIV century the Marmarosh zhupa was created – administrative unit within the Hungarian kingdom. In 1329 the king Karl Robert grants Khust the status of the coronal city and the city becomes the central defense station of the region. Since Khust had the status of the free coronal city, Vyshkovo had the same status. The rest of the cities were private ownership.

Later on, on the verge of XIV-XV centuries the Hungarian monarchs facilitated migration of great amount of German colonists to Zakarpattia. The crafts dealt with by the migrants were encouraged in every possible manner. The migrants revived the regional economy, German colonists brought their religious denomination to the city. Thus, the new catholic, protestant (Lutheran) temples were erected.

In the early XVІ century the intestine wars have essentially aggravated the king’s power in Hungary. Therefore, in 1511 the king Vladyslav ІІ transfers Khust castle along with the mines and coronal cities which belonged to the castle, on a rental basis for 20 thousand gold pieces per annum to the earl Gabor Perenia. The fact that the solar mines were governed from Khust castle is testified by the royal charter dated 1514.

Since 1617 Khust becomes the property of Ishtvan Betlen. During the whole XVII century Marmarosh region was the object of Crimean Tatars invasion under the yasir. In 1657 the campaign of Polish prince Lyubomyrsky took place and in 1661 – 1662 the Ottomans’ campaign. However, Khust at that period was not invaded. Though, from the longstanding military actions the city declined.

In 1720 році only 70 yards were in Khust, 29 of them were owned by shliakhta. The castle was not reconstructed since the times of the end of war between Gabsburgs and Rákóczi. In 1749 the decision was made about uselessness of modernization or some other works in the castle, therefore, all its military equipment was transferred to Koshitse. However, the station remained.

Starting from the mid XVIII century and till the first half of ХІХ century the city of Khust increased much. In 1827 it had 377 yards. In 1838 the Khust residents had to pay 1187 forints to the state, besides, 2. 656 forints of military tax. In the early XVIII century in Khust the crafts developed, namely, shoemaking, textile, smithcrafts, etc. Since 1760 in the city the powder mill started working which processed the saltpeter, produced at the companies of Marmarosh region. At the end of XVIII and at the beginning of ХІХ century the craftsmanship starts developing much, as well as trading in cattle, great amount of which was brought here from Halychyna and Bukovyna regions. The sheep, fair, corn etc. was brought to the Khust market. In the second half of the ХІХ century the first wood processing company emerged in Khust, as well as mill, from 1909 the brick and tile works operated in Khust. The craftsmanship was developing, the amount of trade increased. Like before, the city was one of the most important centers of trading in cattle and different handicrafts. 

Jews in the cityDirect link for this paragraphGo back to indexGo back to index

Jews are mentioned for the first time in Khust in the late XVII century. Before 1830 Jewish population amounted to 132 persons, before1880 the Jewish population increased to 1062 persons (total city population was 6228 people).

Until 1921 during the Czechoslovakia times when Khust became the district city, the Jewish population increased to 3.391 people. Most of municipal industry, trading, business institutions and workshops belonged to Jews. For instance, cinemas, retail and wholesale enterprises, wine cellars, half of the clothing shops of the city, shoe whops, stores and production of electric appliances, trading in wood, millwork, textile shops and can factories. Jews also owned three banks, plans, four mills the hotels “Krorona” and “Central Hotel”. Some Jews were doctors, pharmacists, clerks. Jews were also connected with trading of grain, fruits, and cattle.

In the interwar period the city developed rapidly, as it became the administrative center of Czechoslovakian part of Marmarosh Comitat. At that time new residential houses were built in Khust, as well as administrative, medical, social buildings, schools, trading premises, objectі of civil communications, water pipeline, sewage system and current distribution network. At that period the “Slavonic House” (culture house, cinema, restaurant) was built, which was the place of meetings for the local intelligence.

In 1924-1925 according to the design of Prague architect-functionalist J. Frainvald the Czech quarter was built, composed of the residential houses for the workers and officers. This district was also called “Massarik’s colony”. The architect Frainvald used the traditional local materials – stone, wood, sand and gravel mix and ceramic roofing, and optimally followed the vernacular motives.

During the war the part of the city was destroyed, however, the city in general did not suffer much.

The monuments and construction and architecture Direct link for this paragraphGo back to indexGo back to index


The synagogue was built in 1872 – 1875. This is the only constantly operating synagogue in Zakarpattia since the time of its foundation. During the Second World War, the staff of Jews deported from the city was kept in the synagogue. After the war the Soviet Power several times tried to take the building and turned it into the club and shoe factory, but Jewish women watched the synagogue for twenty four hours and did not allot to invade it. This synagogue was constructed in compliance with all canons of Jewish religion. Characteristic rectangular form, porch in entrance behind which the synagogue itself is located. Main hall is divided by the rows of columns for three naves (there are synagogues with 5 naves). Near Eastern part there is Ark of God with Torah scrolls, and rise for reading them in front. The synagogue has 9 domes covered with the lath, 2 halls for praying, balcony for women’s praying. The premises for women are separated from the men’s premises with the grating.

In contrast to most of towns in Western Ukraine, the authentic Jewish community preserved in Khust. Today Jewish community encounters 165 Jewish church members. Prayer takes place each Saturday. Pensioners and disabled people are provided with the free food, humanitarian aid and household aid.


There were two kirkuts in Khust – old and new. To this day the new kirkut is preserved, which comes from ХІХ century. In 1939 Jewish population amounted to 11.276 persons. The last known Hasidic burial was in 1990-s. No other city or village used this cemetery. There are more than thousand tombs on the cemetery, over quarter of them are preserved in their original appearance. The cemetery does not have the specially divided sections. The boarders of the cemetery are left unchanged since 1939. The cemetery has minimum maintenance and support ensured by municipality.


The history of the city Khust is closely connected with the castle, from which only the ruins survived to this day. Construction of the wooden fortress for the boarders protection and to defend the salt routes started about 1090, during the reign of the king Laslo I the Saint (years of reign1077-1095) and lasted till 1191 – time of the reign of Beila ІІІ (years in power1172-1119). In 1242 the fortress and city were destructed by Tatars. According to the Hungarian chronicles during that period the fortress belonged to Khust voivode. In 1318 the outpost was renewed. It should be noted that the castle reconstruction was conducted to increase its fortification and improvement of its defensive capacity. From 1281 to 1321 the city was a part of Halychyna-Volyn Principality, and then again became the part of Hungarian Kingdom. The first direct documented mention of the castle is dated1353. It is known that the first fortress commandant was Yan Dralepskyi-Horvat. At that period Khust castle defended the salt mines and timber rafting through Tysa, controlled the trade route from Hungary to Poland, and defended the boarders of Hungarian Kingdom.

Since 1378 Khust Castle for the king’s debts was granted to Vlachian voivodes Drag and Balk, in 1405 the king Zhygmond (Sygizmund I) Luxemburg (years in power1387 – 1437) transferred Niolab and surrounding villages to his close friend and secret chancellor Imre Perenia. However, already after a short time the castle was left ownerless. Since 1445 and until late XV century different commandants owned the castle. In 1447 the temple was constructed on the territory of the castle. In XV century Khust castle performed the functions of prison. In 1511 the king Ulaslo II Yagellon (1490-1516) transferred Khust castle together with the salt mines and five crown cities for renting for 20 gold pieces to the earl Gabor Perenia.

Starting from 30-s of XVI century and till the end of XVII century the city together with the castle was owned by Transilvania princes, emperor Ferdinand I, general George Bast, Ishtvan Betlen and finally became the part of Gabsburg Empire.

During the liberation war 1703-1711 Khust castle was an important base point of the rebels – kurutsi composed of Hungarian and Slavonic population. This is where the heads of rebels in 1709 convened the seven-city saim and proclaimed the Transilvania independence.

In 1711 after Gabsburgs’ victory in Khust castle the Austrian permanent post was located in Khust Castle, but it was impossible to reconstruct the half-destructed fortress completely. In 1749 the vicarian commission officially proclaimed that Khust castle lost its strategic significance and the decision was made about the transfer of military material basis to Koshytsi. In 1766 as a result of explosion of the powder depots during the storm, Khust castle and all building on its territory were destroyed or burned. Many people died in fire, as the only exit from castle was blocked with the stones. To conduct the repair works the money was provided, the amount of permanent post was increased, but the fortress could not be reconstructed. The castle was in the process of destruction, and soldiers of the post continued complaining about the unbearable conditions of service. Finally, in 1773 the empress Maria-Terezia authorized her son Joseph II to inspect the Khust castle. The future monarch, having insured in the impossibility to revive the destroyed fortress ordered to transfer the permanent post to Mukachevo castle. Today only the ruins are left from the castle.

St. Elizabeth Church of XIV-XVIII centuries (45 Zhovtiana str. №45) The church was build in the late XIV – early XV century and sanctified in honor of Elizabeth. In the late XV century the church was partially reconstructed and surrounded by the defensive wall, therefore, it belongs to the defensive type of temples. In 1524 overwhelming majority of local residents shifted to Protestantism, therefore, the temple became Reformist Church. Today this is acting church which belongs to the Greek Catholic Community of the city. The building of church is composed of the bell tower in XV century, name and apsis connected to them. The bell tower has three bells: big – 1587, medium and small - 1683. The temple has the compass windows and doorway characteristic of the gothic style. The temple patrons were Diord Rakotsi, Hanna Lonioi, Mikhai Opofi who made a big contribution to its reconstruction and restoration in XVII century. In 1640 Ishtvan Betlen granted the silver cup and bowl to the church.

During 1774-1783 the essential internal church reconstruction was conducted: the stone floor was laid (survived to this day), seating spaces, located on the upper layer located on the Northern part and temple crown. During the restoration 2004-2005 on the Southern wall the ancient paintings were found and were successfully restored. The Hungarian kings Laslo, Ishtvan and earl Imre are depicted on the wall paintings and were canonized. Under the floor of the temple the burials are located (1708 – 1709). On 18 June 2006 upon the initiative of Hungarian institute of military history the names of the people buried here are eternalized on the marble plates.

Roman-Catholic St. Anna Church (24 Zhovtnia Street, No.40).

The first written mention of the Roman-Catholic church is dated XIV century, however, in 1524 the overwhelming majority of local residents adopted the Protestantism, and along with that Roman Catholic st. Elizabeth Church has become reformist. The parish was reconstructed in 1765. In 1799 the construction of modern Roman Catholic Church was started, as the reformists have not given the St. Elizabeth Church. They say that the ruins of Khust castle have become the source of construction material for the church. It is confirmed by the inscription of the wall of the church in Latin: “This is the part of Khust castle ruined but not conquered, stronger than in the throne of the living God”. As it is confirmed by the archive materials, this record in 1802 was ordered by the priest of pianistic order Vikentiy Shymelius. Apart from the rights to the stones transportation from the castle mountain the perish people were allowed to carry the bell and clock to the newly constructed temple from the castle clock tower which today is the priceless trophy of the city. The clock on the church tower shows the Central European time. Today the ancient St. Anna icon is kept here and gilded monstrance for Holy Sacraments which in 1859 were granted to the church by its parish. The icon is preserved in its original appearance and is the main sanctuary of the temple.

Holy Annunciation Church

In 1927 the Orthodox community was founded in Khust and in 1928 – 1929 Orthodox church (13 Keramichna Street) was built. The rev. Oleksiy who served the community till his death in 1947 was the church rector.

Green plantations monumentsDirect link for this paragraphGo back to indexGo back to index

Chervona Skelia natural landmark consists of the red rock. It is located near the city Khust. This place is connected with the legends about the city origin.

Tulip Tree

130-years old exotic plant of magnolia family. This high tree in wild grows in the North America. Usually the plant is acclimatized under the subtropical conditions. It blooms for three weeks with big yellow flowers in June and resembles the tulips buds.

Non-material valuesDirect link for this paragraphGo back to indexGo back to index

Moshe Shik was born in the city of Birkengaim of Hungarian Kingdom (modern Brzezova near Bradle, Slovakia), was the son of Rabin Joseph Shik. The family came from the Rabin Khanokh Gainikh Shyk from Shklov.

At the age of 11 Moshe Shik was sent for studying with his uncle Rabin Itskhak Frenkel to Av Beth Din in Regensdorf. At the age of 14 he went to study in Mozes Sofer in Presburg for six months. Sofer called his incrfedible student “the treasure chest full of holy books”. When Moshe Shik was 20, he married his cousin Gittel Frankel. They had several children. He was appointed Yeregin Rabin in 1838, where he opened yeshivahs. Moshe Shik trained his students for three decades. In 1861 he became the Khust Rabin and brought yeshivah for 800 students with him.

Shik was the leading figure in Orthodox camp during the struggle with Judaism neologies stream which facilitated medium reforms and government magyarization policy. On 28 December 1867 soon after the Austro-Hungarian compromise, the Jews of Hungary were legally emancipated. Minister of religion Jozhef Etvesha strived to establish national Jewish organization which would represent different communities in front of the government. Orthodox Jews, fearing that their rivals will win convened the Rabins’ congress in Peshta between 24 November and 3 December 1868.

Samuel Benjamin Sofer was elected the president and Shik did not have an official position, however he showed himself as a leader. He was the one who decided to send the letter to Etvesh with the statement that Orthodox Jews will not pass resolutions from future National Jewish congress unless it corresponds to their views. Congress was convened in Peshta between 10 December and 23 February 1869, it was aimed at creating the new organization. Shik and Zygmund Kraus conducted the Orthodox campaign for separation from authorities.

On15 November 1871 the new minister of religion Tyvadar Pauler acknowledged the Central Bureau of Autonomous Orthodox Jewish communities in Hungary, which was independent from the proponents of neological streams of national Jewish Bureau.

In Rabins’ commentaries Shik is widely known as Magaram Shyk (מהר"ם שיק); Magaram is an abbreviation from Morein Araav Moises which is translated from Hebrew as “Our Master, Rabin Moshe". He died in 1879.

Museums – archives – book collections – private collectionsDirect link for this paragraphGo back to indexGo back to index

Khust Museum of Region Studies — municipal museum of regional studies in Khust, collection of monuments from the history and arts of the region. Museum is located to the address: 1 Pyrohova str., Khust (Zakarpattia Region), Ukraine.

Exposition of Khust Museum of Regional Studies consists of 10 halls with the total area of 1, 500 m². The fullest and most interesting is the Carpathian Ukraine Hall (1938—39), as Khust was the capital of this state for some time. On the third floor of museum there is Khust Exposition Hall with the permanently operating art gallery.

Places of memoryDirect link for this paragraphGo back to indexGo back to index

The exact places of mass burials of Khust Jews killed by Hungarian police officers for the attempt to get saved from the death camps are not known. It is known that near the village of Vyshkovo, Khust region, on 16 April 1944 Hungarian gendarmes shot over 100 Jews of Vyshkovo, who were not the citizens of Hungary.

Near Khust, in Kryvka concentration camp, hundreds of prisoners were kept. From that place they were brought by 40 persons to the bank of Tysa near Veliatynskyi Bridge and were shot there and the bodies of the dead were thrown into the water. Almost 6 years the fascist terror dissipated. According to the incomplete information of the Extraordinary Commission for the Investigation and Establishment of Crime caused by the German and Hungarian invaders for the years of occupation 183.395 people were thrown to prisons and concentration camps, out of which 114, 982 were killed.

Tourist infrastructureDirect link for this paragraphGo back to indexGo back to index

Silvash Hotel. 40 Slyvova str., Khust, Phone.: +38 (098) 943-06-50 , +38 (03142) 5-50-44 

List of referencesDirect link for this paragraphGo back to indexGo back to index


Author: Bozhena Zakaliuzna