Shtetl Routes. Vestiges of Jewish cultural heritage in cross-border tourism in borderland of Poland, Belarus and Ukraine

 

Shtetl Routes. Vestiges of Jewish cultural heritage in cross-border tourism in borderland of Poland, Belarus and Ukraine

 

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Kobryn - Cultural Heritage Card

Кобрын [Belorus.],

קאָברין [Yiddish],

קוברין [Heb.],

Kobryń [Polish],

Kobryn [Lithuanian],

Кобрин [Rus.],

Kobryn [Eng],
Kobryn is a town, a district center in Brest region.

Pre-war buildings in Kobryn
Pre-war buildings in Kobryn (Author: Pivovarchik, Irina)

Historical and natural landscape Direct link for this paragraphGo back to indexGo back to index

It is situated in the western part of Polesye on flat banks of Mukhavets River at the place where this river joins the Dnieper-Bug Channel, 46 km to the west from Brest. A railway station on the line Brest-Homel is situated here. It is on the junction of motorways to Minsk, Brest, Pinsk, Kovel, Malarita. Population is 51.2 thousand of people (2002).

Geographic coordinates: 52°12′ N 24°21′ E. (G) (O) (Я)

Historical and cultural memorials: historical build-up development of the town, building of the former Spasskiy Monastery (the 18th century), Holy-Alexander-Nevskiy Cathedral (1868), Holy Petro-Pavlovsk Fortress (1913), Holy Nickolayevskaya Church (1750-1860), Holy George Church (the 17th - the 18th centuries)    Polish Roman Catholic Church of Ascension of the Most Holy Virgin Mary (1843), building of the former synagogue  (the 2nd half of the 19th century), building of the former post house (1846), mansion in  A.V. Suvorov's estate (the 18th century), A.V. Suvorov Recreation Park.

HistoryDirect link for this paragraphGo back to indexGo back to index

The first written mention about Kobryn belongs to 1287 and is presented in the Hypatian Chronicle. In accordance with the Chronicle the wife of Vladimir-Volyn Prince Vladimir Vasilkovich Princess Olga obtained town of Kobryn under the will "with people and the tribute". In the 1st half of the 14th century the town became a part of Grand Duchy of Lithuania but soon it was seized by the king of Poland Kazimir III the Great. In the result of two wars between Gedeminovichs and the King of Poland a treaty was signed in 1366. According to this treaty Kazimir III the Great recognized Prince Lubart Gedeminovich's rights for Kobryn. One of the Great Prince Lithuanian Olgerd's successors Roman Fedorovich from 1387 was officially named Prince of Kobryn. During 1404 – 1519 Kobryn was the center of Kobryn apanage principality which belonged to Princes of Kobryn. Representatives of the princely family were followers of Orthodox religion. Semen Romanovich Kobrynskiy took part in the war of Orthodox feudal lords of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania against the King of Poland Vladislav II Yagayly. Other owners of Kobryn allocated funds for building Orthodox temples and for rendering help to monasteries.

In 1501 the last representative of Kobryn Princely family the princess Anna Semenovna became a wife of King's marshal Vatslav Kostsevich and entered Catholicism. After that a Polish RC Church was built in Kobryn. The first written evidence about Jewish community in Kobryn is presented in the document of 1514 in which King Sigismund the Old confirmed privileges given to Jewish communities of Lithuania in 1503 by his brother Alexander Yagellon. From 1519 Kobryn became the center of Kobryn eldership and in 1532 the wife of the King of Poland and the great Prince of Lithuania Sigismund I the Old queen Bona Sforza d'Aragona obtained rights for Kobryn eldership. She came to Kobryn several times. During this period queen Bona's channel ("the Channel Bona") was built in the south-western part of the town.  In 1520 – 1566 Kobryn was a part of Kobryn uyezd of Podlaiskie voivodeship and from 1566 it was included to Berest voivodeship.

In 1563 King's inspector Dmitriy Sapega compiled a description of Kobryn economy. During that period there were 377 yards with houses in the town. Market place was the business center of the town. It was a broad square a certain part of which was taken by shop lines and taverns.  The square was surrounded by two-storied buildings: the upper floor was mainly used for living and the ground floor was used for a shop or a workshop. At the end of one of main streets of the town (street Pinskaya) coming to the east along Mukhavets river houses of the Jewish community and a synagogue were situated. According to data of revision 22 Jews owners of houses lived in Kobryn. They mainly dealt in trading, brewing and farming.

In 1586 Queen Anna Yagiellonka became the owner of Kobryn.  In 1589 she arrived to the town and solemnly awarded inhabitants with a privilege about receiving the Magdeburg right signed by King Sigizmund III Vasa. Kobryn obtained the right to form its own administrative body of power (magistrate). Trading and handicraft appeared on a new higher level: craftsmen cooperated with each other and created workshops. Exchange of goods between Kobryn and neighboring villages was activated. Movement of vessels along Mukhavets river was enlivened. Every week on Monday a market was organized in Kobryn. And twice a year (in autumn and in winter) fairs were organized. Jews living in Kobryn were equalized in rights with other inhabitants. In accordance with the obtained privilege Kobryn got a right to have an emblem, a seal and a town hall. The emblem of Kobryn included figures of vergin Mary and Saint Anna (in honor of the owner of the town Anna Yagiellonka) on the background of a silver field; Virgin Mary holds baby Jesus in arms.

Wife of Sigismund III Vasa Konstantia became the following owner of Kobryn (from 1605 and up to 1635). This period is marked by reinforcement of the Catholic Church.

The middle and the second half of the 17th century are characterized by multiple losses for Kobryn. In September 1648 Cossacks surrounded Kobryn and distroyed the troops of stolnik Vincent Korvin Gonsevskiy and broke into the town. Kobryn was almost completely burnt during Jewish pogrom. About 200 Jews owners of houses were killed. During the war between Russia and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Rzeczpospolita) Swedish troops came to the town and later it was destroyed by troops of  the Grand Duchy of Lithuania  under the command of marshal Zheromskiy: Polish gentry considered itself entitled to possess the property of the King as far as it didn't obtain payment for bearing the duty. Jewish population of Kobryn suffered the most from plundering and violence.

In the beginning of the 17th century during the Great Nothern War Kobryn was destroyed and plundered. Epidemic of 1711 brought lives of more than a half of population of Stolin. Trading and handicraft fell into decline. According to definition of capitation tax taken from Jews of Brest voivodeship in 1705 in Kobryn and the tenants the sum of the tax was 315 zlotys. An interesting treaty was signed in 1714 between the qahal and a certain Michel Izkovich. This Michel Izkovich gave to qahal 1,000 zlotys for 8 years and in exchange for this the qahal released Izkovich and his posterity from all state and common (banal) taxes and gave him a right of free existence in the market or in any "jurisdiction" of Kobryn as well as a right to perform trading and to manufacture wines. In 1766 Kobryn qahal numbered 924 payers of the capitation tax.

The first known rabbi of Stolin was Betsalel ben – Solomon Darshan, the author of "Amudeha schibah" and other writings (he died in 1678).  Rabbi Yakov ben – David Shapiro (or Spiro) is also a well-known personality (he died in 1718). He was the author of "Ohel Jakob". He was also the founder of a yeshibah. More than 400 pupils attended this yeshibah during years of his life.

In 1766 King Stanislav August Poniatkovskiy deprived Kobryn of the Magdeburg right. Treasury keeper Antoniy Tyzingauz took an active part in restoration of Kobryn economy. Administration of the economy was moved from a castle to the estate built in the south suburbs of the town. A big park was grounded here. A direct linden alley was running from here to Kobryn. This alley gradually turned into a street leading to the market. During this period construction of a channel was started. This channel was intended for joining rivers Mukhavets and Pina. In 1794 King Stanislav August Poniatkovskiy made two visits to Kobryn and took part in the ceremonial opening of the Channel which was named King's channel. Soon the town was occupied by Russian troops headed by A.V. Suvorov.  In 1795 the town and the Kobryn key estate were granted to the well-known military leader.

In 1795 Kobryn was included to the Russian Empire and became a district center of Slonim government.  In 1796 the town became a part of the Lithuanian Government. And in 1801 it was included to Grodno government. The war of 1812 brought a significant damage to the town: 548 out of 630 houses were destroyed in Kobryn. Gradually the town was restored. In 1817 population of Kobryn was 1.7 thousand people; in 1857 4.3 thousand people lived in the town and in 1897 the town was inhabited by 10.4 thousand people. 

According to the revision of 1847 4,184 Jews lived in the town; in 1864 the number of Jews was 4, 469 (1 synagogue и 14 praying houses). According to the census of 1897 the number of Jews was 6,738 (64.8% of the total population of the town). Almost the entire sphere of trading (shops, inns, hotels and coffee houses) was owned by Jews.

Prohibition of Jewish leasing in 1882 and introduction of vodka monopoly in 1897 influenced the level of life of Jews living in Kobryn and many of them (first of all craftsmen) immigrated to the USA.

In the 19th century the following persons are known: Rabbi Kobryna Meir Marim Shafit (he died in 1873) – the author of "Nir al Jeruschalmi"; Rabbi Eliya known under the name Rabbi Elinke Lider and others. During 1892 - 1897 a well-known halachist H.Berlin was the rabbi of Korobin community. Starting from the 19th century Hasidism had a significant impact on the spiritual life of the Jewish community. An entire dynasty of tzaddiks was formed in Kobryn: Moshe ben Israel (he died in 1858), Noakh Naftali (he died in 1889), David Shlomo (he died in 1918), Moshe Arakhon (he died in 1942), Barukh Iosef Zak (he died in 1949).

Among the most significant enterprises there were 3 brick plants, 6 tanneries, 2 breweries and a copper-smelting plant. During that period Kobryn turned into an important junction of highways. In 1846 reconstruction of the King's channel was finished and it was renamed as Dnieper-Bug Channel. In 1897 Kobryn river dock accepted over 400 vessels. Active trading was organized out in the town. Six fairs per year were carried out. In 1857 2 parochial schools were acting in Kobryn. About 100 boys learned in these schools. In 1910 a private Jewish school for boys was organized in Kobryn. According to the results of population census of 1897 the share of literate inhabitants was 41%. After a railway station was opened in Kobryn the town took even a more active part in the process of economic development of the region and the country.  In 1904 there were 916 buildings in Kobryn (128 of them were built of stone). The town also had a factory, 18 plants, 9 hotels, 2 inns and 23 taverns. Mutual credit societies as well as a savings and loan office, a notary's office and 3 printing houses were in operation in the town. There were 2 hospitals, 3 schools for boys and 3 schools for girls. Kobryn repeatedly suffered from large-scale fires. In the result of such fires large districts of the town were destroyed. In 1895 during a fire 310 residential houses were burnt. In 1896 210 houses were burnt and more than 2 thousand people became homeless. In 1905 during a fire 104 houses were destroyed.

In the beginning local orthodox population opposed penetration of Sionism but after the revolution of 1905 a local organization of Bund party was organized in the town and later Poaley Zion organization came to existence.

In the beginning of the First World War crowds of refugees passed through the town. Despite the fact that the Russian army carried out stubborn battles nearby the town Korobin itself was hardly affected. In august of 1915 Korobin was occupied by Kaiser Troops and in 1919 it was occupied by Polish troops.

After Riga peace was signed in 1921 Kobryn became a part of Poland and became an uyezd center of Polesye voivodeship.  According to the census of 1921 population of Kobrynwas 8,208 people including 5,431 Jews (66.2%). The town had several reformed heders, Talmud - Torab, Yeshivah, 7-form "Tarbut" school where learning was carried out in Hebrew, a school where learning was organized in Yiddish, as well as a 2-form religious orthodox school for girls "Bajs Jakow" (concession for opening this school was obtained by Rabbi Kobryna Veinberg Neakh). According to the data of the 1927-1928 learning year there were 231 pupils and 7 teachers in "Tarbut" school in Kobryn.

In 1937 the Jewish Community (gmina) of Kobryn allocated 3,593 zlotys and 55groszs for "Beys Yakov" schools and 9,850 zlotys 56groszs for "Hoyrev" schools. Gmina took an active position concerning problems of preserving the culture as far as it considered Judaism and the Hebrew language to be the main bases for preservation of Jewish people identity within the multiconfessional state. In this direction the synagogue was an ally of Jewish organizations and parties. The closest relations were built with "Agudat Israel" orthodox organization.

During that period of time the most Jews living in Korobin were engaged in the sphere of construction, weaving, trading etc. After the Soviet troops entered the town on the 20th of September 1939 a certain number of Zionist youth escaped to Vilno in order to get to Eretz-Israel from there.  After the western regions of Belarus were included to the Belarus SSR starting from the January 1940 Kobryn became the center of Kobryn district in Brest region.

Kobryn was captured by German troops on the second day of the War (the 23rd of June 1941). First occupational management was performed by the local commandant's office (Ortscommendatur). On the first day of occupation Germans burnt the synagogue. Jewish people had to wear marks with David's star for the purpose of visual determination. These signs had to be worn on a sleeve and the left side of the chest staring from the age of 10.  Jews were forbidden to walk along pavements. All Jewish men and women were ordered to attend compulsory works.

In July 1941Gestapo performed a raid in streets of the town. According to various data in the result of this raid 170-200 captured Jews were shot dead in fields of suburban "Patriki" estate.  The following action aimed at extermination of Jewish population was carried out in August 1941. Under the pretext of registration of inhabitants of the town about 180 disabled and ill Jews were driven together in the building of school No1 for granting allowances. They were shot dead in the district of village Imenin. According to certain courses of information lists of disabled persons were prepared by Kobryn Judendrat at the order of occupational authorities.

In the beginning of September 1941 Kobryn was included to general district "Volyn- Podoliya" (Reich Comission "Ukraine"). On the 3rd of September 1941 the civil occupying authority was established in Kobryn. The town became the center of Kobryn district including Kobryn, Antopol, Divin, Zhabinka, Drogichin (from December 1941), Kartuz-Bereza (from January 1942). Kobryn district commissar Pantsyr was subordinated to the general commissar in Brest-Litovsk. Jewish population of Kobryn was informed that in case breaking occupational authorities’ orders shootings will be implemented. From the 10th up to the 20th of October 1941 occupational authorities carried out population census of the district. Population was registered and passports were issued. On the 15th of October at the order of the district commissar of Kobryn the sign of David's star was substituted with a sign made of a yellow cloth or thick paper in form of a circle 8 cm of diameter. This patch was placed on the left side of the chest and in the middle of the back. For breaking this order penalty of 1000 rubles was foreseen. All Jews had to shave off their hair.

According to the order of occupational authorities Jewish population of Kobryn had to pay a contribution by means of collecting 1 kg of gold; they also had to hand all jewelry.

During the first months of occupation Jewish Community of Kobryn increased by means of refugees and persons resettled by occupational authorities. According to some accounts a group of Jews from town of Belostok was resettled to Kobryn. In autumn 1941 Jewish population of Kobryn (8 thousand of people) was taken to ghetto consisting of two separate parts. Ghetto "A" was bigger as for its area and the number of prisoners. It was used for Jews who were specialists in various spheres (skilled workers, craftsmen, physicians etc.) as well as for physically strong people who could be used for performing compulsory works. This ghetto was situated in the southern part of Kobryn. Its borders were defined along the str. Suvorova, Freedom square, str. Pervomayskaya and Kirova. Ghetto "B" was defined for incapacitated part of Jewish population including old people, women, children, disabled persons.  Its borders were situated in the western part of Freedom Square up to the bridge, right sides of streets Sovetskaya and Sportivnaya. Empty Jewish houses in the central part of the town were inhabited by Christians from regions of ghettos.  Jews living in Kobryn did everything possible (including giving bribes) to be sent to ghetto "A" as far as they understood that there they had more chances to survive. 

Occupational authorities of Kobryn spared money and forces and didn't build fences of ghetto. Between the facades of houses at the border of ghetto "A" there was a board fence. Ghetto "B" had almost no fences. In ghettos there was a strict lack of drinking water and there was a problem of overpopulation. Occupational authorities announced an order according to which Jewish women didn't have a right to bear. All pregnant women (regardless of the period of pregnancy) were ordered to make an abortion.  The Judenrat had to select and to deliver 300 of insane people for shooting. 

Judenrat and Jewish police armed with rubber hose and consisting of 50 young men were created. Judenrat was situated in the building of the former Jewish hospital in the str. Pervomayskaya. Merchant wholesaler Angelovich was the chairman of the Jewish Board. Starting from the 10 of April 1942 Jews were prohibited from walking in streets outside the ghetto. Judenrat was responsible for organization of compulsory works: groups of Jews sent from ghettos marched under escort of Jewish policemen along the shortest way from ghetto to the place of works and back from the place of works to ghetto. Sometimes working groups of Jews were sent to work on foot to places which were situated 10-15 km from the town. About 500 prisoners of ghetto "A" worked in the artel. Any contacts between prisoners and inhabitants of Kobryn were prohibited. Rendering help to Jews was persecuted. In the beginning of 1942 all Jewish shops were closed. Norm of bread for Jews was 70 grams per day. A tremendous help to prisoners of ghetto was rendered by miller Josef Yadvov who used his relations and illegally delivered flour to ghetto and sold it to people in need.  At the end of May - beginning of June in accordance with the order of Kobryn district commissar Pantsyr Jewish physicians, dentists and veterinarians were prohibited to have private professional practice and from that time Jewish medical workers could work only under supervision of Christian specialists.

In the beginning of June 1942 population of ghetto "B" was gathered on the Freedom Square where Angelovich addressed them from a balcony of a house standing at the corner of street Internatsionalnaya. He announced that a certain part of Jews living in Kobryn would be sent to perform works and called to hold peace, to take clothes and food. Under escort of armed Nazis people were driven to the railway station and loaded to the freight train (200 persons per carriage). The combined train from Pinsk and Kobryn consisting of 18 carriages arrived to Bronnaya Gora district not far from Kartuz-Berioza. There everything had already been prepared: 4 meter pits had been dug and the plot of land had been fenced with barbed wire. People were made to take of their clothes, to go down to the bottom of the pit using ladders and to lay down with their faces to the ground. About 1800 Jews from Kobryn died during this event.

After this event ghetto prisoners were reregistered and their fingerprints were taken. Young people in ghetto were looking for an opportunity to organize opposition. An underground group was organized headed by an employee of Jewish police Shtats. Gershon Tennenbaum maintained communication with partisans.

On the 15th of October 1942 an action of extermination of prisoners from ghetto "A" was performed. The day before, in the fields of "New Way" collective farm in the south suburbs of Kobryn peasants from village Hidra were collected. Under the threat of execution they were ordered to prepare 4 deep pits with width and length of 60 meters. The place of shooting was surrounded by soldiers with automated guns. About 4.5 thousand of Jews from Kobryn were killed on the day of that event.  After shooting careful searches were performed in ghetto. People found in cellars, attics, specially prepared shelters were shot on the spot. When workers of artel learned about death of their relatives they destroyed equipment and stirred up a rebellion. But the rebellion was suppressed and 150 people were killed. Only 72 Jewish specialists were left alive. They were kept in the prison of Kobryn. This group of Jews was shot dead in the yard of the prison in summer 1943 (according to some other courses it happened in December 1943 in fields of "New Way" collective farm and this place was named "Death Walley").  Physician Goldberg was left alive as far as there was no substitution for him. He took several grenades and a revolver and maintained resistance by means of throwing grenades and firing back. When his ammunition was over the physician shot himself dead.

About 100 Jews managed to escape from ghetto in Kobryn many of them joined partisans (A.V. Suvorov and K.E. Voroshylov partisan groups). During liqudation of ghetto a group of children managed to escape. They found shelter in a Polish RC church.   Two RC priests Yan and Vladislav sheltered 8 Jewish children and gave them food. These RC priests were soon reported. And they alongside with the children were shot dead near walls of the temple.

General number of Holocaust victims in Kobryn was 6,900 Jews. 

Few Jews who managed to survive went to Poland under the agreement of repatriation of Polish citizens which was concluded between Poland and the Soviet Union on the 6th of June 1945. From Poland Jews of Kobryn were repatriated to Israel.   During the period 1950-80-s among inhabitants of Kobryn there were several Jews. 

ArcheologyDirect link for this paragraphGo back to indexGo back to index

Archaeological excavations in Kobrynsk district were first carried out in 1889. Up to date a site of Mesolithic epoch, subjects of the Neolithic epoch and the Bronze Age, 5 burial grounds of the 1Kobryn - 13th centuries and 20 mounds have been discovered. Archaeologists carried out researches not far from the bridge over Mukhavets River and in lower layers fragments of ceramic vessels (manufactured before the 11th century) have been found.

Urban planningDirect link for this paragraphGo back to indexGo back to index

Starting from the end of the 13th century brick houses started to be erected on the territory of the town. In the center of Kobryn there was a market place where shopping lines were situated. The ensemble of the rectangular square was formed by means of a ribbon of residential and public buildings, shopping lines and a guest house in the center. During 1920 the square was significantly rebuilt. 

Landmark architecture Direct link for this paragraphGo back to indexGo back to index

(only existing objects)

Building of the post house (end of str. Sovetskaya, 106) built in 1846 in the style of late classicism.   It consists of two single-storied rectangular buildings joined with an arc: a station house and two wings forming an inner household yard. In 1882 the building was re-equipped as a military hospital. Then up to 1970-s a hospital was situated here.  In 1981 the buildings were joined by means of corridors. So a joined architectural composition was formed which was used for an interscholastic learning and creative complex.

A.V. Suvorov Park is one of the oldest parks in Belarus. It was initiated in 1768 according to the order of the Lithuanian treasury keeper A.Tyzengauz during construction of an administrative building "Guberniya" ("Kobryn Key").  After A.V. Suvorov became the owner of "Kobryn Key" a partial replanning of the park was performed. The park was enclosed with a bank and a ditch, an orchard was planted in the center and a small and a small rectangular pond was dug. During the 19th century the park was modified. But despite of this the symmetrical-axial layout (on a flat area of prolonged rectangular form) natural for regular parks of the 18th century was preserved. In 1948 works on ordering the park were carried out under condition of preserving the principle of the regular planning. 

Park of culture and leisure has been formed around the historical center of the park.

Holly Spasskiy Monastery (str. 17 Sentiabria, 11) is situated on the left bank of Mukhavets River. It is for the first time mentioned in 1465. After the Brest Church Union it became the Basyl Monastery. In 1626 the well-known Kobryn Council of Churches was organized in its walls. Main principles of Greek-Catholic Church activity and organization were defined there.  In 1828 at the decree given by Nickolay I a religious school was organized in the monastery.  It was closed after Polotsk Council of Churches in 1839. In the beginning of the 16th century the monastery had residential and servicing buildings (during the 17th and the 18th centuries they were repeatedly rebuilt) and a chapel (kaplitsa). One habitual building has survived. Now it is used as the Administration building.  The building itself is a memorial of the baroque architecture. 

Holly-Alexander-Nevskiy Cathedral (str. Lenina, 18) – it was built during a period of 1864-1868 in honor of serfdom abolishment and for perpetuation of memory about warriors who had died in Kobryn battle in 1812 (I. Kalenkevich was the author of the project). In 1964 it was closed and adapted as a branch of Brest region State Archive. Restoration of the Cathedral was carried out during 1990-1993. It was dedicated in 1990 г. It is a memorial of Classicism architecture.

Polish RC Church of the Most Holly Virgin Mary was built during 1841-1843. It was closed in 1962 and restored in 1990. It is a memorial of Classicism architecture.

Synagogue (up-to-date str. Pervomayskaya, 40). Kobryn synagogue is a memorial of eclectic architecture with elements of Classicism. This synagogue was built in the 18th century. It is one of the biggest synagogues in Belarus. A synagogue building of the kind is presented only in Minsk.  Basilic towerless temple It has a symmetrical volumetric and spacial composition. The central three-storied part of the main facade is marked out with 4 flat blades. Blades of the kind flank the building at its corners. The second and the third floors have got low semicircular window apertures. On the ground floor window apertures are bow-shaped. Decor elements include subwindow flat niches, figured stoneworks of blades on the ground floor, arcaded friezes. During years of war the synagogue became a kind of the center in ghetto: fascists drove there Jewish population from the entire neighborhood. After the war the synagogue was out of function. In the result of the Soviet antireligious campaign the synagogue was closed. Valuable things were taken out of the building and the building itself was used for production purposes. In 1980-s a brewering workshop and later a workshop on production of non-alcoholic beverages of Kobryn canning plant were situated here.   From the end of 1980-s and up to 2003 the building was abandoned and gradually came into disrepair. In 2003 "Kobryn Jewish Religious Community" was registered. This organization got engaged in the process of active restoration of the synagogue. A greater part of the building was planned for creation of the cultural center of Jewry of western Belarus, a museum of history and ethnography of Jews of Brest region was planned to be opened nearby and a separate wing of the building was defined for the acting part of the synagogue.  The total cost of this project was defined as 1 million of USD. Now the building is out of use and is gradually falling into disrepair. But even today it impresses with its size and forms.  It is the only synagogue preserved in Kobryn after the war.

Jewish cemetery (up-to-date str. Kutuzova). It is an old Jewish cemetery situated in the suburbs of Kobryn.  Up to date it is just a territory with gravestones all around.  Not long ago a decision was made to improve the territory of the cemetery.

Memorial placesDirect link for this paragraphGo back to indexGo back to index

In 1945 an obelisk was set up in the south outskirts of Kobryn at the place where great numbers of Jewish population had been shot dead.

Intangible valuesDirect link for this paragraphGo back to indexGo back to index

Kobryn is the place where Oskar Zarisskiy (Osher Zarisskiy) (1899 - 1986) was born. He was one of the most known algebraic geometricians of the 20th century.

Russian architect Semen Yulianovich Sidorchuk (1882-1932) was also born in Kobryn. He executed significant projects in village Tsarskoye Selo as well as in Brest and Kobryn.

Museums, archives, libraries, private collectionsDirect link for this paragraphGo back to indexGo back to index

Kobryn Military History Museum of A.V. Suvorov was grounded in 1946. Up to date it takes two buildings: Suvorov's house which is a memorial of architecture of the 18th century of republican value and in the new building of the museum built in 1989.

Zonal State Archive of Kobryn (including documents and materials from 1944 on abolished Davidov district, Ruzansk district of Brest region as well as on Bereza district, Kobryn district and Pruzany district of Brest region).

ReferencesDirect link for this paragraphGo back to indexGo back to index

1.     Lukiewicz U.  Male miasta obwodu Brzeskiego  Poludniowe Podlasie w warunkach integracji europejskiej/ Red. M.Ciechocinska. Siedlce,  2005. S. 391-414.

2.     Kobryń // Słownik geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego i innych krajów słowiańskich. Tom IV, s. 205.

3.     Войтещик А.С. Местечки Западной Беларуси (1921 – 1939 гг.): социально – экономическое и культурное развитие : дисс. на соиск. уч. степени канд. ист. наук. Гродно, 2013. С. 145.

4.      ГАБО. Ф. 59. Оп. 2. Д. 590 – Решение Попечительства Полесского школьного округа о закрытии частной школы, содержащейся раввином Вайнбергом Неахом в г.Кобрине (7 февраля 1929 – 3 июля 1929г.). Л. 2-3.

5.      ГАБО. Фонд р – 59. Оп. 2. Д. 662 – Отчёт дирекции религиозных еврейских школ об организации учёбы в 1932/1933 учебном году. Л. 22.

6.      ГАБО. Фонд 370. Оп. 1. Д. 28 – Отчёт об исполнении бюджета еврейской религиозной гмины за 1937 г. (г. Кобрин). Л. 3об.

7.     Шпилевский П.М. Путешествие по Полесью и белорусскому краю. Мн., 1992. С. 42-48.

8.      Мощук А.В. Деятельность Бунда на территории Западной Беларуси в 1921-1939гг.: дисс. на соиск. уч. степени канд.ист. наук. Брест, 2007. С. 97–98. 

9.      The Book of Kobryn. The Scroll of Life and Destruction / Ed. Betzalem Shwartz, Israel Chaim Biltzki. – Tel Aviv, 1951. – P. 380, 381, 383-386, 388, 391, 392.

10.    Памяць: Гiст.-дакум. хронiка Кобрынскага раёна. – Мiнск: БЕЛТА, 2002. – С. 25 – 37, 153, 154, 457-471.

11.    Российская еврейская энциклопедия. – М., 2004. С. 115.

12.    НАРБ. Ф. 750. Оп. 1. Д. 316. Л. 4.

13.    НАРБ. Ф. 750. Оп. 1. Д. 316. Л. 109.

14.    Преступления немецко-фашистских оккупантов в Белоруссии. Документы и материалы. Мн., 1965. С. 231.

15.    Antopol (Antepolie). Yizkor Book ed. by Benzion H. Ayalon. – Tej-Aviv, 1972. – Р. 93.

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19.     Эбэрхардт П. Дэмаграфiчная сiтуацыя на Беларусi: 1897-1989. Менск, 1997. С. 100.

20.     Розенблат Е., Еленская И. Кобрин // Холокост на территории СССР: Энциклопедия. – М.: Российская политическая энциклопедия (РОССПЭН): Научно-просветительский центр “Холокост”, 2011. – С. 426, 427.

В 1501 г. последняя представительница рода Кобринских князей Анна Семеновна стала женой

 

Author: Irina Yelenskaya

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