Shtetl Routes. Vestiges of Jewish cultural heritage in cross-border tourism in borderland of Poland, Belarus and Ukraine


Shtetl Routes. Vestiges of Jewish cultural heritage in cross-border tourism in borderland of Poland, Belarus and Ukraine


NN Theatre

Pinsk - Cultural Heritage Card

Pinsk is a town, a district center in Brest region. It is situated on the bank of Pina River (the left tributary of Pripyat) 186 km to the east from Brest, 304 km to south-west from Minsk. It has a railway station on the line Brest-Homel.

Pinsk - Cultural Heritage Card

Historical and natural landscapeDirect link for this paragraphGo back to indexGo back to index

Пiнск [Belorussian.],

פּינסק [Yiddish],

פינסק [Hebrew],



Пинск [Russian]

Pinsk is a town, a district center in Brest region. It is situated on the bank of Pina River (the left tributary of Pripyat) 186 km to the east from Brest, 304 km to south-west from Minsk. It has a railway station on the line Brest-Homel. According data of 2009 its population is 130.3 thousand people.

Geographic coordinates: 52°07′ N 26°05′ E (G) (O) (Я)

Historical and cultural memorials: Butrimovich's palace (1794), Karl Baromeush RC church (end of the 18th century), Jesuit collegium (1631), former Franciscan Monastery with the cathedral of Ascension of Virgin Mary (1786), a bell-tower (beginning of the 19th century), the first gymnasium (1858), Bank of Mutual Credit Society (end of the 19th – beginning of the 20th century), department of Azov-Don Bank (1912 – 1915), town magistrate (1920 – 1930).

HistoryDirect link for this paragraphGo back to indexGo back to index

The first mention about Pinsk in written sources is presented in Tale of Bygone Years (Primary Chronicle) under 1097. In the Hypatian Chronicle describing events of the 11th - the 13th centuries on the territory of Eastern Slavic lands Pinsk is mentioned 14 times. Up to the middle of the 12th century Pinsk was a part of Turov Principality. This period in the history of the town is characterized with rapid development and an extremely high status. Starting from 1174 Pinsk became a center of apanage principality. The first historically authentic prince of Pinsk was Yaroslav Yuryevich, son of Turov Prince Yuriy Yaroslavovich, descendant of Iziaslav who was the elder son of Yaroslav the Wise. In the beginning of the 14th century Pinsk principality became a part of the Grand Dutchy of Lithuania. The Grand Duke of Lithuania Gedimin transferred it to his son Narimont; then the Pinsk principality was devolved to his descendants (Narimontavichs). During war 1432-1439 Pinsk principality was included to personal possession of the great prince Sigismund Keystutovich as ancestral lands. Subsequently some lands of the volost was distributed and some lands in 1471 were granted to the widow of the Keiv Prince Semen Olelkovich (Maria) who was a representative of well-known Gastold family and she willed possession of Pinsk to her daughter Yelena and her son-in-law. In 1506 Pinsk Prince Fedor Ivanovich Yaroslavovich and his wife Yelena gave a patent to Yesko Meyerovich, Peysakh Yezefovich and Abram Ryzhkovich with permission to open a synagogue in Pinsk and to organize a cemetery in this locality. 

After 1521 Pinsk with "yards and volosts" was obtained by Sigismund the Old who transferred it to his wife queen of Poland and the great princess Bona Sforza in life-long possession. The new proprietress carried out a number of reforms. In the result of these reforms Pinsk eldership was created. The first elders were: Ivan Khoreyevich (1524-1543), Peter Mylskiy (1544-1551) and Stanislav Falchevskiy (1552-1556). During the 1560-s Pinsk became the center of the district within Berest voivodeship.

In the 16th century Pinsk turned into a significant town with population of 4 thousand people more than 700 yards and about 40 streets. During this period the reached its strongest prosperity and became a major center of handicraft and trading in Polesye district. It belonged to towns with the highest scale of taxation: in 1551 only 6 Belorussian towns (Brest, Vitebsk, Mahilyow, Minsk, Pinsk and Polotsk) brought to the state treasury the tax in amount of 100 kopas of Lithuanian groszs. Pinsk performed internal and external trading. Agricultural products intended for export were centralized here. Handicraft goods as well as products of trading were also transferred to the west and to Ukrainian lands. In the 16th century Polish merchants took from Poland wax, furs and brought iron, ironware, fabric, clothes and other goods.

In the beginning of the 16th century a small Jewish community consisting of 18 families moved to Pinsk. Among these families there were representatives of rich merchant class. The most influential were families of Israel Pesakhovich, Nakhim Pesakhovich, Ilya Moyseyevich. In the middle of the 16th century Jewish community of Pinsk consisted of about 180 persons (28 families). Many families lived in Zhydovskaya Street. Jews living in Pinsk often acted as creditors owners of Pinsk. Brothers Peysakh and Ayzek Yezefovichs were creditors of Prince Fedor Yaroslavovich. In 1537 Israel and Nakhim Pesakhovichs filed a complaint to the king's court against a Minsk voyt who owed money to them. In 1548 brothers Pesakhovichs and Moyseyevich obtained lease of Pinsk customs, an inn and a part of charges.

A peculiar feature of that period was competitive struggle for profitable spheres between representatives of Jewish community and Christian community. In 1562 Grand duke of Lithuania Sigismund August permitted Berest Jews Khaim and Avram Rubinovichs, Tovyash Bogdanovich to lease a warehouse of salt in Pinsk. In the result of this Pinsk voyt and Christian citizens addressed the prince asking to give the lease into Pinsk citizens' hands and they obtained his consent.

Pinsk Jewish community was one of the richest in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and this fact is confirmed by significant sums payed to the state treasury. So, in 1563 during distribution of tax of 4000 kopas of groszs among Jews of the entire Grand Duchy of Lithuania Pinsk community had to pay 600 kopas of this sum. But periods of prosperity and economic stability were substituted with the period of decline. In 1574 in view of fires and devastation Jews living in Pinsk addressed the Grand Duke of Lithuania asking to release them from all taxes in order to obtain an opportunity to rebuild houses and to renew property. In the result of that Jews of Pinsk were released from all taxes for a period of 6 years.

On the 12th of January 1581 king of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania Stefan Batoriy signed a privilege giving Pinsk a right of self-administration (the Magdeburg Law). According to the privilege the highest authority in the town belonged to voyt with deputies ("lava") and to burgomaster with the council ("Rada"). The town obtained a right to have its own seal and its own emblem (a golden bow against a red shield).

In 1648 there were about 6 thousand house owners taking into account that during that period about 6.5 persons lived in one house and population of a town might be 32,500 - 39,000 persons. In town books it is stated that in 1654 state taxes were taken from Pinsk citizens from 89 dyms; and from Pinsk qahal - from 55 dyms. Prosperity of the Jewish community in Pinsk is confirmed through the fact of contraction a grandiose Big synagogue in the 17th century which was destroyed just after the Second World War.

During the war in the middle 17th – beginning of the 18th century Pinsk multiple times found itself in the center of tragic events. Citizens of Pinsk supported Bogdan Khmelnytskiy and that lead to multiple victims among citizens of the town. Citizens headed by representatives of Magistrate and heads of workshops opened the gateway for Cossacks headed by Chieftain Anton Nebaba. Plundering and murders of nobility and Catholic and Uniate Priesthood took place. Jews were also rudely reprised: in the result of pogroms in the town several hundred of Jews were killed, many persons were plundered and killed while trying to escape from Pinsk. Giving support to Cossacks came at a cost for the town. At the order of Yanush Radzivill in 1648 troops of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania occupied Pinsk. More than 3 thousand of people were killed; 5 thousand houses were destroyed in fire. In 1652 population of Pinsk reduced in the result of an epidemic.

During war of 1654-1667 the town was for multiple times stormed by Russian and Ukrainian troops. On the 5th of October 1655 Russian troops headed by Dmitriy Volkonskiy conquered Pinsk; many inhabitants were killed; the town was plundered and almost entirely burnt. Complaints of Pinsk Jews on troops of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania have been preserved. Light horse troops of King Lisovskiy also performed plundering. On the 4th of July 1660 Pinsk was occupied by Zaporozhye Cossacks and Muscovites and that was related with new victims among citizens, clergy and gentry with plundering and arsons. In addition to their money gentry and Jews living in Pinsk qahal lost their financial and fiscal documents.

During the war between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Rzeczpospolita) and Russia number of agreements concluded in Pinsk reduced more than 3 times (from 994 to 299). Situation in Pinsk was so hard that the town was two times released of any taxes for periods of 4 years (in 1655 and in 1660).

Legal books of the 17th century contain information about legal proceedings between Jews and Christian citizens of the town. Jews often set complaints against brothers of Orthodox monasteries who attacked them, beat them, stormed into Jewish houses at night.

In 1690 Pinsk elder Yan Karol Dolskiy founded town suburbs on the territory of Zagorye and named it Karolin. Jews called this place Karlin. Pinsk and Karlin were separated with only one street Rovetskaya. By Dolskiy's invitation many rich Jews moved to Karlin. Karlin Jewish community was extremely growing. Synagogues, a heder (Jewish nursery school), a mikvah, a cemetery as well as shops, storehouses and barns were organized there. Pripyat course was rectified with a channel ("Strumen") and Karlin got the advantage over Pinsk: loads and goods transported from the side of Dnieper first were delivered to Karlin embankment. Karlin excelled Pinsk in goods turnover and obtained revenues.

During the Great Nothern War the town suffered from Sweden troops and allies of Sapegs. Leaving Pinsk on the 3rd of June 1706 king of Sweden Charles XII ordered to fire the suburbs and to blow up the Karolin castle. Drastic consequences of that were felt up to the end of the 18th century.

Economic potential of the Jewish community in Pinsk was undermined in the result of wars fires and epidemics. Jews had to look for creditors. For getting money Pinsk qahal addressed Dominicans: in 1693 it borrowed 1 thousand zlotys and in 1737 - 16,630 zlotys from Dominicans. Catholic RC churches were also chosen as creditors. In 1766 the debt of Pinsk qahal was 309 thousand of zlotys (providing that the income was 37 thousand of zlotys). It is known that at the end of the 17th – beginning of the 18th century Lithuanian Tribunal pronounced sentences about expulsion from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania as well as about execution of elders of Pinsk Jewish community because of non-payment debts to the treasury and private persons.

According to inventory of Pinsk of 1764 there were 550 buildings in the town and almost all of them were constructed of wood. During that period of time there were 26 merchant shops, 20 furrier shops, 26 shops of salt and 9 butcher shops in the town. There were 184 Jewish dyms (yards) and 165 Christian yards in the town. The number of handicraft specialties and specialties in the sphere of rendering services was about 50. Blacksmith, tanning, shoe making, butchery, tailor workshops as well as furrier workshop etc. were registered in the town.

Economic and trading importance of Pinsk grew significantly after construction of roads Pinsk-Slonimsk and Pinsk-Volyn as well as channels connecting Pripyat with Neman and the Western Bug. Using Mukhavetsk, Berezinsk and Oginsk channels it became possible to transport goods from Pinsk by water through Black Sea and Baltic Sea ports.

Pinsk became world-wide known as one of the biggest centers of Hasidism. Pinsk suburbs Karlin (Karolin) became the residence of Hasidic zaddik dynasty founded by Aaron Ben Yakov Karliner (Perlov) (1736–1772). Son Osher who moved to Stolin continued business of his father. And the name of Karlin-Stolin Hasids comes from here. Karlin was well-known in the Grand Duchy of Lituania as well as behind its borders and Hasids living on that territory were called not otherwise than "karliners". Aaron and Osher Karlinskiys were buried in the Karlin cemetery which was demolished after the Second World War. This territory was bulit up but graves of tzaddiks situated in the first row remained intact.

In the result of the second division of Rzeczpospolita Pinsk as a district center was included to Minsk government of the Russian Empire. From the beginning of the 19th century a rapid growth of Pinsk started. Population as well as the territory of the town was rapidly increasing. On the 14th of December 1799 Karolin settlement was included to the territory of the town. According to data of 1825 there were 8 stone houses and 714 wooden houses, 25 shops, 29 drinking houses and 1 bathhouse in the town. In 1863 number of private houses in Pinsk increased up to 1031 (8 of them were built of stone). The town had 2 Orthodox monasteries, 4 churches, 1 RC church, 2 synagogues, and 21 Jewish prayerful houses. Most buildings were constructed of wood and were owned by Jews (in 1866 1008 houses in Pinsk belonged to Jews; and Catholics were owners of 88 houses). The most expensive houses belonged to Wolf Naydich (evaluated as 3 thousand of rubbles), David Lurye (2.5 thousand rubbles), Moysha Levin (3 thousand rubbles). During that period population of Pinsk was 13,060 people. The share of Jews was 65,5%. Influx of Jews was contributed by adoption of Russion laws restricting number of Jewish population in towns and settlements.

Jewish educational institutions (talmud-torah, heders and Iyeshibots) were the main measure for supporting the national culture and religion. In 1853 a Russian governmental school was organized for children of Jewish merchants. The same year a Jewish school for girls was opened. In 1878 a school with educational process in Hebrew was organized. In 1888 a Jewish handicraft school was founded. At the end of the 19th century heders were organized. They were headed by Khovey Zion. Department of Jewish Education Distribution Society (OPE) worked in Pinsk. Charitable activity aimed at diving support to poor population was common for the Jewish community. Jewish charitable society was organized in Pinsk in 1899. It provided clothes and food for poor people. It also provided assistance to those searching work, gave medical staffs to patients, organized funerals etc. In 1903 lists of members making voluntary contributions included 797 surnames. In 1898 Jewish women's charitable society was grounded.

During the 19th century Pinsk turned into one of the main centers of metalworking, woodworking and match productions on the territory of Belarus. During the 1860-s about 750–950 Jewish craftsmen lived in the town. In 1882 the south branch of Polesye railway was laid through Pinsk and that contributed to economic development of the town. In 1900 Pinsk was one of towns with trading volume of 1 million of rubbles and more. At the end of the 19th – beginning of the 20th century large-scale construction of stone buildings was started: typical designs as well as unique individual projects were performed. In 1897 in the "List of Factories and Plants of the Russian Empire" a list of 18 enterprises of Pinsk and its suburbs was published. Twelve of these enterprises were owned by Jews. The biggest enterprises included: enterprises of matchbox and straws production as well as enterprises producing roofing felt and L. Gershman's repair shop (more than 300 employees), Lurye's enterprise on production of shoe pins (180 employees), E. Elisberg's enterprise on production of stearin (79 employees). Glued wood of “Тоbal” class (invented by Alexander Lurye) was also produced in Pinsk. It was of great demand in Russia and abroad. In the sphere of veneer production Lurye's enterprises took the leading position in the entire Russian Empire. Lurye's sowing production and glued wood (veneer) production included 84 employees. In 1914 49 of 54 enterprises in Pinsk were owned by Jews.

Pinsk became one of centers of Hovey Zion movement. The head of this movement in Pinsk rabbi D.Fridman was a member of Katovitse congress. Starting from the end of the 19th century Bund groups as well as Zionist groups performed their activity in Pinsk. Khaim Veitsman (a graduate of Pinsk non-classical secondary school and the future first president of Israel) was a Pinsk delegate of Zionist congresses.

The First World War changed the calm life of the town. On the 15th of September 1915 Pinsk was occupied by German troops. According to conditions defined by the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Pinsk district had to be included to Ukraine but in the result of further events plans were changed. The town was alternately managed by Petlura movement representatives, the Red Army, Polish troops, troops headed by General S.Bulak-Balakhovich. One of the most tragic events for Pinsk Jewish community of that period was shooting of 35 Jews performed by Polish soldiers near walls of Jesuit collegium. These Jews were accused in "Bolshevist conspiracy". Pinsk Jews obtained financial and material help from the "American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee and Refugee Aid" (Joint). Funds obtained from the Committee gave an opportunity to organize three orphan homes where more than Jewish orphan children were kept. The Committee also helped to organize nutrition of children at educational establishments of the town. But in the report presented by the authorized representative of Jewish community executive committee Y.I. Kantor to the Moscow Jewish Committee on rendering help to victims of pogroms (the report was presented on the 15th of September 1920) it was stated that additional orphan home had to be organized in Pinsk for more than 200 children, nutrition of 1 thousand children had to be provided and child care institutions had to be provided with footwear, clothes, medicaments and fuel.

In accordance with Riga peace treaty Pinsk was included to Poland as the center of Pinsk district of Polesye voivodeship. On the 7th of August the center of the town was significantly damaged in the result of a fire: about 1/3 of buildings were destroyed (including 600 living houses). But then the town was developing dynamically and successfully. The territory of Pinsk became significantly broader (from 486 ha in 1922 to 1446 ha in the beginning of the 1930-s. In 1930 the town had 6,233 buildings including 3,585 living houses (including 758 living houses built after the fire). Town Authorities took a decision to give permission for construction of only stone buildings in the center of the town.

Town administration was performed by the magistrate headed by the burgomaster. Rada was the regulatory and controlling body. It consisted of Rada members of the Magistrate. Elections to Rada were characterized through sharp competitive activity of Polish and Jewish parties and public associations. The town council (Rada) consisted of representatives of various political trends and that often lead to disruption of Rada sessions.

In the 1920-s industry of Pinsk was renewed. A Lurye's veneer factory was subjected to technical reconstruction and that gave an opportunity to increase export of products (veneer was exported to European countries, countries of the South America and Asia). In 1936 despite the world economic crisis 13 industrial enterprises performed their successful work in Pinsk. Most of them were enterprises of wood-processing sector: match factory "Progress-Vulkan" of Galpern (600 employees), Lurye's veneer factory (600 employees), Veneer factory "Leshche" owned by H. Feldman and B.Kunda (430 employees), 4 sawmills, a factory on producing chalk for schools, joiner's shops and foundries, 3 mills. Jews constituted the absolute majority among craftsmen and a significant share among physicians, legal experts and teachers. In the beginning of the 1930-s 34 physicians worked in Pinsk as well as 19 dentists, 18 medical assistants, 18 midwifes and 33 pharmacists.

During the period of 1920-s - 1930-s social and political life in Pinsk was very diverse and stormy.

D. Shlesberg and V.Shklarnik were at the forefront of the Communist organization of the town. Alongside with the Communist organization such organizations as Bund, Jewish Zionist party Poaley-Zion as well as youth organizations "Freigeit", "Beytar" and "Hekhaluts" performed their activity in the town. Bund activists organized strikes at enterprises of the town trying to achieve better salaries for workers; with a help of Jewish Diasporas of New York and Chicago they organized in Pinsk an orphan home, a number of working cooperative, a kitchen for workers and a night school for youths.

Schools with Yiddish and Hebrew as learning languages worked in Pinsk. In 1922 the guardianship of Brest school district gave a permission to admit Jewish children to the initial forms of Pinsk Russian gymnasium. This order was provoked by the fact that Jewish schools of Pinsk could accept just an insignificant part of those who wanted to learn. The specially created parent's committee dealt in collecting funds needed for opening a new school where learning would be organized in Hebrew and which could be the basis for future Jewish gymnasium. In 1922–1923 learning year Avraam Mazur became the director of this new school and David Alper became its inspector. From the very first days of its existence the school was supervised by Zionists. In 1925 it was taken under control of "Tarbut" organization. In 1926 the school obtained status of a gymnasium. In 1931 David Alper became the director of this gymnasium. In 1937 he obtained permission to open a two-year lyceum at the gymnasium. Not all children could pay for learning. In 1927 18 pupils learned in gymnasium free of charge, 7 children paid 25% of the cost, 32 children paid 50% of the cost; 15 children paid 67% and 16 pupils paid 75%. So benefits were obtained by majority of pupils. In 1936 2,587 pupils learned in "Tarbut" gymnasium.

In 1925 thanks to "Tarbut" organization department another 7-year school was opened in Pinsk. Learning at this school was organized in Hebrew. This school got the name "Midrash-Tarbut". Manievich became the first director of this school. Then this position was taken by Issaak Kobrinchuk. In 1936 "Midrash-Tarbut" was divided into two schools. So, three educational establishment with Hebrew as the learning language worked in the town. In addition to that a private Jewish women's gymnasium worked in the town. Learning was organized in Polish there. This gymnasium belonged to A. Chechik-Golinker. Seven Jewish primary schools, two Jewish specialized schools (a handicraft one and a trading one) also performed their activity in the town. Five Jewish religious schools of Pinsk included 2 Talmud-toras. Another Talmud-tora school worked in Karolin. Pinsk yeshiva had more than 50 pupils.

About 20 various Jewish periodicals were issued in Pinsk: "Pinsker Voch" ("Pinsk week"), "Pinsker Wort" ("Pinsk Word"), «Pinsker Sztime» ("Pinsk Voice") etc. Eight Jewish publishing houses worked in the town.

The Second World War and HolocaustDirect link for this paragraphGo back to indexGo back to index

At the eve of the Second World War Jewish population of Pinsk constituted a majority: according to the census 1921 17,513 Jews lived in the town (74.6% of the total population). In 1931 Jewish population was 20,220 people (63.4%). And in April 1941 number of Jews exceeded 22 thousand people (about 60 %).

After the start of the Second World War and inclusion of Western Belarus to the BSSR Pinsk became the center of Pinsk region in accordance with the respective decree of the CC RKP (b) concerning the administrative division on the territory of western regions of BSSR dated the 20th of November 1939. Yet in September 1939 refugees (mainly from Warsaw and Lodz) moved to the town. According to data of the 25th of October 1,771 refugees were registered in the town. Jews constituted the majority of them. As far as Pinsk was proclaimed a loosed town only 95 refugees were left there (these were former political prisoners, physicians, engineers and typographic workers).

In the course of deportations of 1940-1941 from Pinsk to Archangelsk, Kirov, Kuybyshev, Murmansk, Novosibirsk and Sverdlovsk region of Russia as well as to Akmolinsk region of Kazakhstan, Mordovian and Komi ASSR 385 Jewish families (883 people) were deported. Among the deported Jews there were families of members of Jewish parties and organizations, entrepreneurs, traders (including families of repressed manufacturers, brothers Feldman and brothers Kunda - 32 persons).

The Soviet Authorities didn't have enough time to organize Mobilization and evacuation of population from Pinsk. Jews trying to independently escape to the east in most cases were stopped at the former Belorussian-Polish border by Soviet border guards and sent back to the place of their living.

On the 4th of July 1941 Pinsk was occupied by German troops. During the first days of occupancy 16 Pinsk Jews were arrested by Wehrmacht soldiers. They were killed in Leshch (now the Park of Recreation and Rest). German Authorities proclaimed those Jews to be victims of the Soviet terror. This was done for propaganda purposes.

During July of 1941 special punitive units of Einsatzgruppe headed by A.Nebe (Sonderncommands 7a, 7b, Einsatzcommands 8 and 9 as well as a special team "Moscow") carried out extermination of Jewish population in neighboring villages of Pinsk town.

A greater part of Pinsk region was included to the General District "Volyn-Podoliya" and was a part of "Ukraine" Reich Commission. Pinsk obtained the status of the center of this district (Gebit). Paul Gerchard Klein was the head of the District Commissariat. Pinsk town council was headed by the burgomaster (F. Slivinskiy and then - S. Kirilov). A. Sologub became the head of Police department in Pinsk.

In July 1941 all Jews in Pinsk including children of alder than 10 years of age had to wear a white bandage with a yellow six-pointed star on it. In August these bandages were substituted with round yellow patches sewed on shoulders, left side of the chest and on the back (in the area of the left shoulder-blade).

On the 30th of July 1941 a Judenrat was created in Pinsk. The list of its employees included 24 persons (plus 3 more employees in an additional list).

On the 4th of August 1941 300 Jews were arrested in Pinsk. On the next day it was announced that male Jews at the age of 16 - 60 except for physicians, craftsmen and workers at enterprises had to come together at the railway station or else hostages were going to be shot dead. At the same time the Authorities issued an order about organization of compulsory works for Jewish population. People who gathered at the railway station were announced that they were going to be sent for repair of the railway. People were lined in columns and sent in direction of Posenitshi village (7 km from Pinsk) where pits and cordon lines had been preliminarily prepared. A group of men when they saw machine guns took an unsuccessful attempt to escape. Undressed people gathered in groups of 100 persons were driven to pits and killed.

During the night of the 6th of August a roundup was organized in Pinsk. About 300 male Jews with spades and mattocks were sent for bringing burial grounds into order. After that they were also shot dead.

On the 7th of August 1941 a mass roundup was organized in Pinsk. Local policemen took part in it. During this roundup murders and plundering were organized. Arrested men in groups were sent to village Kozliakovichi (1-2km from Pinsk) where they were shot dead.

August operations concerning extermination of male Jews were coordinated by a special group consisting of 18 members. It was sent from Lublin by head of the Security Police and SD Krakov Dr. Schongart at request of the head of Einsatzgroup V.A. Nebe. Mass shooting was performed by SS soldiers. Number of people killed in Pinsk during mass shooting of that period was defined in scientific sources as 4,500 to 11,000 people. According to the last data the total number of people killed in the beginning of August 1941 near villages Posenichi and Kozliakovichi was not less than 5,300 Jews (65% of male population of Pinsk). Some members of Judenrat were killed during these days (including David Alper, the former director of Pinsk "Tarbut" gymnasium). In the report presented by the Einsatzgroup the necessity to organize this action in Pinsk was explained by the fact that a dead policeman was found killed by Jews who also tried to kill another police servant.

On the 11th of August 1941 Pinsk Orts commandant's office issued an order according to which Jews were prohibited to change their place of living. At the same time Jews who had gone from Pinsk before the period of occupancy arrived to their native town in accordance with special permissions. In addition to that Jews from neighboring villages were also brought to Pinsk. During the period of July-October 1941 not less than 776 Jews including 250 Jews from village Ivaniki of Pinsk region were killed.

Before December 1941 registration of Pinsk Jewish population was performed. Jews obtained separate identity certificates with a stamp "Jude" on the cover.

The head of Pinsk Judenrat was 60-year old trader Benjamin Bokshtanskiy but according to some recollections in fact the Jewish council was headed by his younger deputy Mordukh Minskiy who was a former citizen of Dantsyg town (today it is Gdansk, Poland) and had a perfect command of the German language. Pinsk Judenrat included departments headed by responsible executives: department of labor (P. Ilivitskiy), administration and economic department  (E. Feinbron), financial department (A.Meshel), consultation (legal) department (S. Lurye), guardianship department (A. Chechik Golinker), department of statistics and registration (A. Tannenbaum), agronomic department (M. Epstein), civil status department (M. Kostelianets), funeral service department (S. Gerinovskiy), arbitration commission (E. Elstein). A clerical office was organized for technical organization of the working process. Not less than 70 women worked there.

Occupancy Authorities carried out several contributions in form of monetary collections and withdrawal of valuable items (golden coins of Tsar's coining, jewelry, furs and other expensive clothes) from Jews living in the town. According to some information the Jewish community of Pinsk had to give up 256 kilograms of gold and only 120 kg of gold and silver were collected.

Concealment of valuable items led to execution of the owner and his family. It has been documentary proved that on the 9th of April 1942 husband and wife Borukh-Khaim and Kana Ashpizy were executed as well as husband and wife Osher and Estera Sidliky. On the next day (the 10th of April 1942) Nota Melnik, Khasha Rubakha, Sara-Rivka Lasovskaya and Dynia Varshavskaya were executed. Pinsk Judenrat regularly obtained detailed lists of items which had to be given to the Authorities and were necessary for provision of military units and civil organizations with necessary facilities (furniture, tableware, housewares, bedclothes, clothes, cleaning agents etc.).

One of methods used for plundering Jewish population of Pinsk consisted in introduction of penalty system. Money were taken in case of non-following rules of behavior defined for Jews living in the town (going out without patches or documents, walking along pavements, coming to public places, entering Aryan shops etc.), disturbance of the regime of obligatory works and sanitary norms. According to the circular issued by the General Commissar of "Volyn-Podoliya" district dated the 21st of October 1941 Jews living in Pinsk were imposed head tax of 10 rubles from a head. According to order given by the district commissar from January to April of 1942 the tax was increased to 15 rubles per person.

Starting from the 5th of November 1941 20% of salary of Jews had to be given to the fund of the district commissariat. But real residues were started from the March of 1942. In addition to that Jewish population wasn't released from paying other common taxes (income tax, industrial tax, turnover tax, housing rent, building tax etc.).

Abled-bodied Jews living in Pinsk (men aged 14 - 60 and women aged 16 -50) had to take part in obligatory works on repairing military and civil objects, construction of a wooden bridge across Pina River as well as construction of a railway bridge across Yaselda River, in cleaning streets and premises, snow clearance, works on improving the German cemetery, conservancy works, transportation of various materials.

According to data of the 25th of January 1942 Jewish population of Pinsk was 18,017 including 11,911 women (66.2 %) and 6,106 men (33.8 %). At the same time after mass shooting of men in August of 1941 children and adolescents younger than 14 years of age composed a half of male Jewish population. The category of able-bodied persons included 9,056 persons (50.2 %), 8,961 people (49,8 %) lived at the expense of able-bodied population. Able-bodied population was distributed as follows: 1,982 persons were engaged at industrial enterprises, at town institutions (11 % of Jewish population); private workshops were held by 291 persons (1.6 %), other 6,783 persons were periodically called up to work at the Judenrat (37.6 %). Children (boys younger than 14 and girls younger than 16) consisted 34.4 % of population (6,209 persons); senior citizens (men older than 60 and women older than 50) consisted 14.2 % of Jewish population (2,562 persons). In addition to that 190 chronically ill and disabled persons (1% of the total population) lived in Pinsk. A big part of able-bodied Jewish men was engaged in industrial production as well as at town institutions (skilled workers) – 1,613 persons (26 % of male Jews or 81.3 % of all representatives of this category). 228 Jews were engaged at the technical department and economic department of Pinsk town council. At the tannery of Pinsk the share of Jewish workers was 60.8 % (45 persons). At the match factory the share of Jewish workers was 40.6 % (170 of men. and 31 of women). The main share of Jewish women was engaged at compulsory works (5,985 persons or 50.2 % of all women (among people engaged at compulsory works share of women was 88.2 %).

During first months of occupancy daily norms of bread were defined for Jewish population of Pinsk (200g for an adult and 150 for a child). On the 17th of November 1941 the head of department of supply and agriculture of Pinsk district commissariat Straub issued an order on regulation of food supply matters for Jews living in Pinsk. Starting from that very time Jews were prohibited to take part in buying or exchange of products at Arian shops, markets as well as from private persons. It was categorically prohibited to speculate and to beg alms of non-Jewish population. Starting from December 1941 norms of food supply defined for Jews living in Pinsk were decreased. The usual diet included 100 g of bread, 140 g of cereals and 35 g of fat per day. Workers obtained additional 100 g of bread per day. In the beginning of 1942 (after requests of Judenrat) the daily norm of bread for adult Jews was increased up to 150 g per day.

From December 1941 6 bakehouses worked in the town. Three of them served Jewish population (they were owned by L.Kagan, R. Kolodnaya, H. Gochstein). Pinsk Judenrat had on its balance a public kitchen, an orphan house (in December 1941 81 children were kept there), a hospital a polyclinic, a sanitary inspection room, a pharmacy shop, a bathhouse, a funeral service and a cemetery.

The Jewish hospital (str. Zavalnaya, 9) was intended for 100 beds. Doctor Layzer Yakobson was appointed to be at the head of this hospital. Medical and working personnel of this hospital included 62 persons. Patients from the entire pinsk district were kept there. Dr. Shmuel Lev was appointed to be the director of the Jewish polyclinic (str. Prodolnaya, 3). He was the head of 57 persons. Philip Weinberger was the head of the Jewish pharmacy shop (str. Albrekhtovskaya-56).

On the 16th of October 1941 the first cleaning of health establishments was performed. Jews were dismissed from the chemico-bacteriological laboratory, sanitary station, infirmary for mental patients and the pharmacy shop base.

Thanks to medical-sanitary activities epidemiological situation in Pinsk didn't go out of control for a long period: before creating the ghetto one case of camp fever, 12 cases of pythogenic fever and 23 cases of dysentery were officially registered among Jewish population of the town. But yet during that period increase of morbidity rate and mortality rate could be noticed. According to official data of occupancy authorities for a period from September 1941 up to May 1942 deaths of 243 Jews were registered. In January 1942 the oldest and respected rabbis from Pinsk died (Borukh Epstein and Aron Valkin). Children took a significant part of those who died. Before creating the ghetto more than 50 children younger than 14 died (including 35 children born in 1941 and 1942).

The Jewish police of Pinsk included 12 employees. It was headed by former bookkeeper Osher Feldlight. After creation of a ghetto the number of employees at the Jewish police was increased up to 50 persons. After death of O. Feldlight it was headed first by Goldberg and then by Elstein.

Religious life of the Jewish community was completely disorganized: observance of cultic ceremonies was prohibited (divine services and ritual slaughter of livestock). Jewish cemeteries were defaced. New streets were laid through them. Occupancy authorities used synagogues for housekeeping and economic needs. According to memories of those who survived during Holocaust there were several synagogues and prayerful houses in the ghetto. Rabbi A. Perlov had a great authority with believers.

On the 18th of September 1941 a special commission was created at Pinsk town council. It was responsible for ghetto organization. On the 30th of April 1942 it was announced about creation of a ghetto. During April of that year Jewish population of Pinsk increased by 697 persons. The majority of newcomers arriving from villages of Pinsk district (Zhydche, Kolba, Konchitsa, Parokhonsk, Potapovichi) were women (43.1%) and children (31.1%). By 04:00 p.m. of the 1st of May 1942 resettlement of Jews living outside the ghetto was finished (not less than 7 thousand people). According to the order they had to leave all their property in their former houses. They could only take two pairs of underwear, two sets of clothes (clothes for working and street clothes) and the most necessary kitchenware.

The created ghetto was supervised by Alfred Ebner who was deputy of the district commissar. The ghetto took several quarters of the town which were fenced with 3-meter high barbed wire and was supervised by police officers. Borders of the ghetto were in streets Zavalnaya Albrekhtovskaya, Logishynskaya and Teodorovskaya (today these are streets Zavalnaya, Kirova, Pervomayskaya, Gogolya and Partizanskaya).

According to data of the 1st of May 1942 18,644 people lived in Pinsk ghetto. The share of women was 50 %, the share of men was 18 %, and share of children younger than 14 was 32 %. Population of the ghetto lived in 446 houses. Each inhabitant of the ghetto had 1.5sq.m. of habitual space: in average 40 people lived in each house. The ghetto territory was disconnected from the town wide electric network.

Jews were a significant labor reserve for occupancy authorities. 818 Jews worked at various enterprises of the town: shipyard, tannery, match factory, veneer factory, sausage factory and town slaughterhouse. 10,870 Jews (3,228 men and 7,642 women) were used for performing temporary and constant works. Every able-bodied Jew had to take part in compulsory works during two days per week. After ghetto was created he most Jewish craftsmen refused their patents. Shoe stitching workshops as well as workshops on sewing clothes and headwear, hairdressing salons and clockmaker's shops continued to hold only 27 specialists; 29 other specialists performed their handicraft activity during time free from compulsory works.

In summer 1942 the head tax for Jews living in Pinsk was increased from 10 up to 12 rubles per month.

According to order given by commissar A. Ebner in the beginning of July 1942 (presumably on the 3rd of July) about 40 disabled persons and mental patients including patients of the Jewish hospital were taken away from the town and shot dead not far from village Kozliakovichi.

Ghetto prisoners suffered from hunger. People tried to find sources of income; they supported illegal contracts with non-Jewish population consisting in exchange of goods to foodstuffs. In summer 1942 the regime of going in and out of the ghetto was tightened. An order was issued according to which it was prohibited to come to the fence of the ghetto closer than 3 meters. Those found in the "zone of risk" were shot dead. People detained with foodstuffs at the entrance to the ghetto were immediately shot dead. In the registration log book of Pinsk inhabitants for the period from the 30th of May up to the 31st of August it is stated that death of 27 Jews occurred in the result of a gunshot wound (among those who died in the result of gunshot wounds there were 8 children and adolescents at the age of 6 to 15 years).

In summer 1942 a wave of dismissals of Jews from pharmacy shops of Pinsk occurred. It was prohibited to bring medicaments to ghetto. In the result of systematic malnutrition, intense and exhausting labor, overpopulation, lack of sufficient quality drinking water, low temperatures, insufficient sanitary conditions cases of such diseases as dysentery, diphtheria, cesspool fever and camp fever became more frequent among Jewish population of Pinsk. According to incomplete official data during the period of Pinsk ghetto existence (from May to October 1942 548 Jews including 166 children (85 boys and 81 girls) died of various diseases. The death rate reached its highest level among children younger than 3 years of age. During the period of Pinsk ghetto existence 24 children born in 1940, 73 children born in 1941 and 23 children born in 1942 died. The highest rate of deaths in the ghetto fell on October 1942 when deaths of 165 Jews were fixed.

During May-October 1942 death rate among the Jewish population of the town was in average 4.3 times higher than the death rate among representatives of other nationalities. This difference was at its maximal point in August of 1942 when death rate of Jews was 10.8 times higher than the death rate of non-Jewish population: 1 person among 1,303 non-Jews died while among Jews the death rate was 1 person among 122 people.

Several underground organizations were created in Pinsk ghetto. These organizations predominantly consisted of young people. A group of people headed by Edvard Prager was planning to escape from the ghetto, to find an arms depot and to create a partisan party. A group headed by Liolek Slutskiy consisted of 50 persons. Underground organizations maintained contacts with the Judenrat and the Jewish police and developed a plan of arson at the eve of ghetto extermination.

During the second half of October 1942 upon the order of the Authorities citizens of village Osnezhetsy took part in preparing nine deep ditches. In order to calm down Jewish population of the town A. Ebner explained that ditches were intended for storing cisterns with fuel and for laying pipes which were needed for transfusion of fuel from trucks to the cisterns. For preventing panic among prisoners of the ghetto the occupancy authorities promised to increase norms of food for workers, to stop searches at the ghetto gate and to present plots of lands for Jews in order they could organize vegetable gardens on these plots of land.

On the 27th of October Reichsfuerrer SS Heinrich Himmler gave an order to liquidate Pinsk ghetto which was then the last big ghetto on the territory of Reichscommissariat "Ukraine". According to Himmler Pinsk ghetto was the center of "bandit movement" in the area of Pripyat swamps. In the order it was stated that in case of operational necessity it was possible to leave a labor camp in Pinsk for 1 thousand of male Jews.

On the 28th of October a conference on the matter of Pinsk ghetto liquidation was organized in the town. This operation was headed by the commanding officer of the 15th police regiment E. Kurske. This event was participated by the 2nd battalion, the 2nd horse division (external cordon of the ghetto), the 10th company of the 3rd battalion, and the 11th company of the 11th police regiment (ground search of the ghetto). Security of the assembly place as well as convoy to the place of execution was provided. The place of execution was also cordoned.

In the morning of the 29th of October liquidation of Pinsk ghetto was started. People were driven out of houses, built in columns and under convoy were brought to the place of execution. Many Jews (old people, patients of hospitals and those who refused to execute orders) were shot dead immediately or at Karolin cemetery on the territory of the ghetto.

Campaign of Pinsk ghetto liquidation continued 4 days and was completed on the 1st of November. During shooting a group of 150 Jews got through the cordon. Some of them managed to escape several kilometers from the place of execution but the most of them were found and executed. During the ground search of the ghetto a lot of hideouts with Jewish families were revealed: under the leads, below the stairs, in masked pits, in yards. Intensive search of survived Jews were continued up to the 10th of November 1942. Only 150 craftsmen were left alive. They were placed to the "smaller ghetto" (11 houses fenced with barbed wire). On the 23rd of December 1942 all prisoners of the "smaller ghetto" were shot dead.

At the end of 1942 and during 1943 plundering and removal of Jewish property out of the ghetto were performed. Former Jewish houses were inhabited by refugees from Smolensk region and other eastern regions. Finding and extermination of Pinsk Jews (those who managed to escape) were carried out up to liberation of Pinsk. According to incomplete data only 42 Jews from Pinsk managed to survive the Holocaust. Many of them joined partisans; others were saved with a help of local citizens. Barbara Bilitskaya (born Mikheyskaya) saved Arye-Layb and Tsylia Dolinko. Julian and Maria Kasperovichs living in village Grivkovichi of Pinsk district saved Osher Soshnik and his father Pinkas Feldman. For saving Pinsk Jews the rank "Righteous of the World's Nations" was given to husband and wife Mariya and Constantin Komar who saved lives of Dina Pesker (Galina Shavel), to mother and daughter Alexandra and Nina Dogmatskiye for saving Shenberg family and Sema Yelinskiy, to husband and wife Vladimir and Donya Dergach and to their daughter Mariya Gromyko for saving Sasha (Iyeshua) Nayditch. Story telling that a German officer Gunter Krul saved Yerukhim-Fishel Rabinov (Peter Rabtsevich) from Pinsk became really famous. In 1999 G.Krul was given the rank of a righteous (posthumously).

Before retreat in spring 1944 occupancy authorities organized works on burning dead bodies and masking traces of mass shooting of Jewish population of Pinsk.

On the 4th of July 1944 Pinsk was released by the Soviet troops.

ArcheologyDirect link for this paragraphGo back to indexGo back to index

The earliest materials of archeological researches of Pinsk town belong to the 11th century. Remnants of ancient buildings and some unique items were found: a stone sacred image of Jesus Christ-Emmanuel and a slate distaff with a Cyrillic inscription «NACTACHNO ПРАСЛЕNE» were discovered.

According to expert opinion the archaeological complex ("Gorodishche" and "Selishche") in village Gorodishche situated 12 kilometers to the north-west from Pinsk is the ancient Pinsk. This area was inhabited from the final palaeolith (about 7 thousand years B.C.). Later this territory was alternately settled by representatives of the Bronze Age and Iron Age. In the 18th century Slavic tribes came to these lands.

Urban planningDirect link for this paragraphGo back to indexGo back to index

Radially-semiring scheme of town planning determined location of Pinsk on the left bank of Pripyat River at the place where Pina River flows into it. The town mainly developed in the western, northern and eastern directions.

A wooden castle was built at the place of the former settlement ("Gorodishche"). This castle was the main architectural and planning dominant of the town. The total length of the defense line of the castle including strong oak walls, a bank and a ditch was 435 meters. In the 16th century the castle wasn't already used as a residence of princes and was inhabited by representatives of gentry and clergy. The main Pinsk temple was situated on the territory of the castle (the Cathedral of St. Dimitriy) as well as a wooden St. Afanasy church.

From the south the castle was adjacent to Pripyat. Entrance to the castle was on its northern side. A trading square was situated at the entrance to the castle. That was the Old market where the main streets of the town came together. In the 17th century the wooden castle fell into decline. Functions of the main citadel of the town were taken by a bastion castle built in the suburbs of Karolin town in the 17th century. It was a sample of the new Italian fortification system. The trading square obtained the role of town planning dominant. A Jesuit college and the town hall were situated here as well as trading lines with shops, houses of rich citizens, representatives of clergy and gentry.

ArchitectureDirect link for this paragraphGo back to indexGo back to index

(Just existing objects)

  • The Modern Pinsk Synagogue (str. Irkutsko-Pinskoy diviziyi - it is a former prayerful house of rabbis Perlovys (Karlinskiys). From 1841 and up to 1901 the building of the synagogue was a wooden one. And after the fire in the beginning of the 20th century a brick building was constructed. Here in March 1941 an illegal congress of rabbis of Western Belarus and Western Ukraine was carried out.
  • In str. Sovetskaya (earlier it was Bernardinskaya street) a rebuilt Yeshiva has been preserved. The last Judenrat was located there.
  • The building of "Progress – Vulkan" match factory (str. Brestskaya) founded in 1892 by Louis Gershman. After the fire in 1907 the factory was bought out and renewed by Austrian manufacturer Josef Galperin (Galpern).
  • In Chuklaya street (former Vodoprovodnaya street) the building of Lurye veneer factory is situated. Its history started in 1880 as a nail factory.
  • Town cinema "Casino" (now Polesye dramatic theater) – built in 1911 for 380 auditorium seats. It was owned by David Leybovich Boyarskiy.
  • Butrimovich's Palace (1784) – an architectural monument combining traces of baroque and classicism.
  • Building of the former Azove-Don Bank (str. Zaslonova). It was built in the beginning of the 20th century in Art Nouveau style. During the period of 1920-s -1930-s the magistrate was located here.
  • Jesuit College (1675)
  • Charles Borromeo RC Church (1782)
  • Pinsk Gymnasium (1858). At the facade of the gymnasium a memorial board is placed in honor of a famous graduate of the gymnasium Khaim Veitsman (the first president of Israel).
  • Pinsk Jewish hospital (str. Zavalnaya) – the second half of the 19th century.
  • Franciscan RC church (the RC church of Virgin Mary Assumption) - an architectural monument of the 16th - 18th centuries constructed in baroque style.

Memorial placesDirect link for this paragraphGo back to indexGo back to index

Monuments to victims of Nazism didn't reflect the topic of Holocaust. A typical example is a stele set up in 1964 in the square garden not far from Pinsk airport not far from the place of mass shooting of Jewish population in autumn 1942. The inscription on the obelisk memorialized 30 thousand Soviet citizens being victims of the Nazi horror but there is no mentioning that the most of them were Jews.

In the beginning of the 1990-s thanks to the help of Israel community of Pinsk Jews new memorial signs were set up. These signs have memorialized victims of Holocaust.

In 1992 a memorial sign was set up not far from Pinsk-Logishyn highway at the burial place of victims of mass shooting performed in the beginning of August 1941. In 1998 this monument was reconstructed. The same year memorial signs were set up at places of shooting Pinsk Jews in str. Kraynaya (district of former village Kozliakovichi) and in str. Pushkina where the Jewish Karolin Cemetery was situated (they were reconstructed in 2005-2006).

On the 14th of July 1993 in Dobraya Volya district a monument was set up commemorating killed prisoners of Pinsk ghetto (sculptor A.Borzennikov). In 2003 the memorial boards set not far from the monument were stolen and in March 2005 vandals disfigured texts of the renewed boards with depiction of swastika.

Intangible valuesDirect link for this paragraphGo back to indexGo back to index

Well-known natives of Pinsk:

Boris Mironovich Feldman (1890 – 1937) – the head of the headquarters of Leningrad military district, Member of the Military council at the the People's Commissariat for Defense of the USSR СССР, he was accused on "military proceedings" fabricated against Tukhachevskiy, Yakir and other military commanders. Corpse commander B.E. Feldman was shot dead in 1937. According to the decision of the Military collegium dated the 31st of January 1957 he was rehabilitated.

Isaak Shenberg (1880 – 1963) – inventor of English television system. He was awarded title of a lord by the queen of Great Britain.

Sabsay Davidovich Moshkovskiy (1895-1982) – a Soviet scientist specialist in infectious diseases and an epidemiologist. He is the author of more than 350 scientific works in the sphere of tropical medicine. He is a doctor of medical sciences, professor, a corresponding member of the academy of medical science of the USSR (1946). He was an expert of the World Health Organization.

Mikhail Davydovych Mashkovskiy (1908 – 2002) – a Soviet scientist, academician of RAMS, one of founders of the Soviet pharmacology, a prominent specialist in the sphere of creation, classification and description of medicinal products and pharmacotherapy; he is also the author of work "Medicinal Products (Pharmacotherapy Manual for Physicians)" which was reissued for multiple times.

Yakov Davidovich Moshkovskiy (1905-1939) – a Soviet pilot and paratrooper, a major. He was one of the pioneers of the parachuting sport who performed more than 500 parachute jumps.

Shaya Iosifovich Berkovich (1918–1942) – the secretary of Pinsk underground district committee of LCYLB (Lenin Communist Youth League of Belarus) and Pinsk underground town committee of LCYLB. He was one of organizers and heads of Komsomol Youth Underground Movement and partisan movement on the territory of Pinsk region. He was killed during a battle with the Nazis on the 31st of December 1942 and was buried in the common grave in village Molotkovichi of Pinsk district.

Museums - archives - libraries - private collectionsDirect link for this paragraphGo back to indexGo back to index

Museum of Belorussian Polesye (Lenina Square, 22).

The Museum was founded in Pinsk in 1926. Up to date it is located in the building of Jesuit College. The following temporary expositions are presented: “History of Pinsk District”, “Nature of Polesye”, “Pinsk District during the Great Patriotic War”, “Russian Art of the 19th - 20th centuries”, “Portrait Painting of the 18th - the 19th centuries”, “Belorussian Painting of the 1950-s - 1980-s”, “Trades and Handicrafts of Polesye”, “Urban Life in the Beginning of the 20th century”, the Gallery of Partisan Glory. As of the 1st of July 2012 funds of the Museum included 66,783 items of the main fund and 15,696 items of the scientific supportive fund.

Pinsk has 9 libraries.

ReferencesDirect link for this paragraphGo back to indexGo back to index

Краткая еврейская энциклопедия. Т.6. Иерусалим, 1992. С. 489, 490.

Еврейские хроники XVII столетия: эпоха «хмельничины». М., Иерусалим: Гешарим, 1997. – С. 112-113.

Бершадский С.А. Документы и регестры к истории литовских евреев. Т.1. Спб., 1882. С.67-68.

Копысский З.Ю. Экономическое развитие городов Белоруссии в XVI– первой половине XVII в. – Минск, 1966. – С. 22.

Гісторыя Пінска. Ад старажытнасці да сучаснасці: да 915-й гадавіны з першага летапіснага ўпамінання / А.М. Літвін [і інш.]. – Мінск : Выш. шк., 2012. – С. 71, 86, 91, 128, 137,. 148, 152, 167, 175, 178, 184, 192, 258, 273, 330, 335, 401, 409, 420, 452.

Розенблат Е.С., Еленская И.Э., Мемуары Якова Элиасберга / Е.С. Розенблат, И.Э. Еленская // Диаспоры. Независимый научный журнал. – Москва. – 2005. – № 4. – С. 37–59.

Мемуары Якова Элиасберга (окончание) / Публикация, научн. комментарии Розенблата Е., Еленской И. // Диаспоры. Независимый научный журнал. – Москва. – 2007. – № 1–2. – С. 186-216.

Розенблат Е., Еленская И. Пинские евреи. 1941-1944 / Е. Розенблат, И. Еленская. – Брест, 1997. – 312 с.

ЯленскаяІ.Э. Акупацыйны рэжым /I.Э. Яленская // Памяць: Гiст.-дакум. хронiка Пiнскага раёна. – Мн.: БЕЛТА, 2003. – С. 227–237, 561, 567, 587.

Розенблат Е.С., Еленская И.Э. Холокост на Пинщине / Е.С. Розенблат, И.Э. Еленская. – Пинск, 2007. – С. 3–12, 26–47, 59–73.

Яленская І.Э. Акупацыйны рэжым / I.Э. Яленская// Гісторыя Пінска. Ад старажытнасці да сучаснасці: да 915-й гадавіны з першага летапіснага ўпамінання / А.М. Літвін [і інш.]. – Мінск : Выш. шк., 2012. – С. 477-487.

Яленская І.Э. Пінскае гета / I.Э. Яленская // Гісторыя Пінска. Ад старажытнасці да сучаснасці: да 915-й гадавіны з першага летапіснага ўпамінання / А.М. Літвін [і інш.]. – Мінск : Выш. шк., 2012. – С. 487-496.

Яленская I. Акупацыя. Акупацыйны рэжым. 1941-1944 гг. / I. Яленская // Памяць: Гiст.-дакум. хронiка Пiнска / Арганiз.-метад. Цэнтр па выданнi гiст.-дакум. хронiк памяцьДзярж. камiтэта РБ па друку; Рэдкал.: Г.К. Кiселёý (гал. рэд.) iiнш. – Мiнск : БЕЛТА, 1998. – С. 246-259.

Розенблат Е., Еленская И. Пинск/ Е. Розенблат, И. Еленская // Холокост на территории СССР: энциклопедия / гл. ред. И.А. Альтман. – М. : РОССПЭН: Научно-просветительский центр «Холокост», 2009. – 1143 с. – 747–751.

Книга погромов. Погромы на Украине, в Белоруссии и европейской части России в период Гражданской войны. 1918-1922 гг.: Сборник документов / Отв. ред. Л.Б. Милякова, отв. сост. Розенблат Е.С., Еленская И.Э. (Белоруссия). – Москва : „Российская политическая энциклопедия” (РОССПЭН), 2006. – 1032 с.

Черушев Н.С., Черушев Ю.Н. Расстрелянная элита РККА (командармы 1-го и 2-го рангов, комкоры, комдивы и им равные). 1937-1941. Биографический словарь. М., 2012, с. 119-120.

Государственный архив Брестской области (далее ГАБО). Ф. 7581 «П». Оп. 1. Д. 209. Л. 15; Д. 25. Л. 81; Д. 27. Л. 12; оп. 2. Д. 1148. Л. 66-72; ф. 2120, оп. 1, д.39, л.34.

Зональный государственный архив в г. Пинске (ЗГАП), ф. 118, оп. 1, д. 9, л. 42, 50; д. 5, л. 29; д.59 а, л.143, 147, 148, 152.

Wydarzeniailosyludzkie. Rok 1939. “ZachodniaBiałoruś” 17.IX.1939 – 22.VI.1941. Т. 1. S. 276, 339, 340.

Государственный архив Российской Федерации (далее ГАРФ), ф. 704, оп. 90, д. 24, л. 8, 8 об., 12, 89.

Boneh N. (Mular) The Holocaust and the Revolt. Offprint from the book «Pinsk», vol. 1, part.2. Tel-Aviv, 1977. P.106, 109, 118, 119, 120.

Dean M. The Holocaust in the Eyes of Homo Sovieticus: A Survey of Collaboration in the Holocaust. Crimes of the local police in Belarussia and Ukraine, 1941-44. London, 2000. P. 34, 35.

Gerlach Ch. KalkulierteMorde. Die deutsche Wirtschafts-und Vernichtungspolitik in Weiβrussland 1941 bis 1944. – Hamburg, 1999. S. 220, 541, 563.

Арад И. Холокаст. Катастрофаевропейскогоеврейства (1933-1945). Сборникстатей. Иерусалим, 1990. С. 68.

Cholawski Sh. The Jews of Bielorussia during World War II. – Amsterdam, 1998. P. 70.

Fatal-Knaani T. The Jews of Pinsk, 1939-1943. Through the Prism of New Documentation // Yad Vashem Studies XXIX / Ed. David Silberklang. – Jerusalem, 2001. P. 162-163.

Jews in Eastern Poland and the USSR, 1939-46 / Ed. N. Davies and A. Polonsky. London, 1991. P.134.

Праведники народов мира Беларуси / Сост. И.П. Герасимова, А.Л. Шульман. – Мн., 2004. – С. 15, 130.

Вырваны з агню. Гiсторыя Пятра Рувiнавiча Рабцэвiча з Пiнска. Выдадзеная i апрацаваная Вернерам Мюлерам. Мн., 2002.

Ботвинник М. Памятники геноцида на территории Брестчины // Евреи Беларуси: История и культура: Сб. науч. тр. – Вып. 5. – Мн., 2000. – С. 180-181.

ГАБО. Ф. 1. Оп. 9, Д. 1183; Ф. 59. Оп. 2. Д. 1278; Оп. 4. Д. 1524; Ф. 2005. Оп. 1. Д. 133. Л. 70. 71.


Author: Irina Yelenskaya